In this article we are talking about hemoglobin, the norm in children by age is presented, a table with summary data. Hemoglobin is the respiratory blood pigment that is responsible for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide, as well as maintaining the normal pH of the blood.
Hemoglobin is contained in red blood cell cells.
With a decrease in hemoglobin level, oxygen metabolism in the tissues is disturbed, cardiac rhythm disturbances develop, immunity decreases, etc. Increased hemoglobin levels are accompanied by an increase in blood viscosity and the risk of blood clots.
Timely detection of abnormal hemoglobin levels from the norm reduces the risk of developing severe complications of the developed disease and improves the prognosis for the patient's further recovery.
Children's and adult hemoglobin - what's the difference?
Oxygen is necessary for all cells of the human body. Without a sufficient amount, hypoxia and tissue ischemia develop.
The function of providing oxygen is performed by a complex two-component protein, hemoglobin. In its structure are subunits of protein heme groups and a nucleus containing iron ions.
At different age stages, the need for hemoglobin varies, which leads to a change in the index. Maximum values are typical for newborns.
It is known that hemoglobin is synthesized during fetal development. However, it is significantly different from adult hemoglobin and is referred to as fetal hemoglobin. Before birth, the fetal form is transformed into glycosylated. The process of final transformation ends by the first year of the child's life.
Interestingly, not all living things on the planet have red blood. Predominantly in marine inhabitants (lobsters, crabs) the blood is colored blue-green due to the copper-containing hemocyanin protein.
Hemoglobin rate in children and a table of permissible values by age
The indicator of the amount of iron-containing protein in the blood is one of the most important criteria for children's health. It is important to understand that hemoglobin levels vary in children by age. Children's rates are slightly higher than in adults. Therefore, you should not try to independently decipher the results of the analysis. Without accurate knowledge and experience, it is possible to erroneously interpret the results, which will lead to an incorrect selection of treatment.
The table presents data on hemoglobin rates in newborns and adolescents, sorted by age, which can be used only for reference.
|Age||Floor||Normal hemoglobin in the blood, g / l|
|The first 2 weeks of life newborn||Both||130 – 215|
|14 to 30 days||105 – 180|
|1 to 2 months||93 – 140|
|2 to 4 months||100 – 144|
|From 4 months to six months||109 – 140|
|From six months to 9 months||115 – 142|
|From 9 months to 1 year||110 – 143|
|From 1 to 5 years||112 – 141|
|From 5 to 11 years||117 – 147|
|From 11 to 13 years||119 – 154|
|From 13 to 15 years||The boys||122 – 163|
|Girls||117 – 155|
|15 to 18 years old||The boys||119 – 171|
|Girls||115 – 155|
The rate of hemoglobin in newborns
Why is the rate of hemoglobin in newborns maximum in comparison with other age categories of children?
During prenatal maturation, the child forms the necessary supply of iron ions due to the resources of the body of the future mother. In the first month of life, stored iron is actively consumed by the body of a newborn baby. Which leads to a smooth decrease in iron-containing protein.
A further rate of hemoglobin in a child directly depends on his diet, the state of the gastrointestinal tract, the endocrine system and the bone marrow.
Breastfed babies rarely have problems with a deficiency or excess of iron ions. Breast milk actively contributes to the full absorption of all nutrients. Therefore, it is recommended not to stop breastfeeding in the first year of a baby’s life.
However, if there is anemia in the mother, the child may also have iron deficiency. In this regard, during pregnancy and during breastfeeding, a woman should be regularly examined and take special vitamins for pregnant women.
Elevated hemoglobin in a child
If high hemoglobin values in the first days of life are a variant of the physiological norm, then later this indicates possible diseases. As a rule, the condition is not accompanied by typical clinical manifestations. A child with high hemoglobin complains of increased fatigue, loss of appetite and headaches.
The main cause of high hemoglobin in a child is dehydration. Intensive fluid loss is observed during high physical exertion, which is accompanied by increased perspiration. Lack of fluid in the body is formed when there is not enough drinking and amid a nervous overstrain.
Among the pathological causes of exceeding the norm of hemoglobin in children are:
- bone marrow pathology, accompanied by increased production of red blood cells,
- intestinal obstruction
- blood clots
- congenital heart defects
- pulmonary heart disease
- pulmonary fibrosis,
- some cancers.
High hemoglobin in a child is observed with burns. To compensate for the loss of blood, the body of the baby begins to actively synthesize red blood cells. Which naturally increases the amount of iron-containing protein. This is a protective mechanism that allows to provide damaged tissues and cells with molecular oxygen.
High levels of hemoglobin in adolescents from the age of 16 have been observed with smoking, taking steroids, and amid stress.
A physiological increase in hemoglobin can be observed in mountain residents, pilots, climbers, etc.
Low hemoglobin levels are observed with anemias of various origins.
In routine medical practice, a clinical blood test is performed to determine the level of iron-containing protein. You can study for free at a public hospital or at a private clinic. Predominantly private laboratories consist in accelerated timelines for obtaining results.
One type of hemoglobin is glycated hemoglobin. It allows you to estimate the content of simple sugars 3-4 months ago. The study is mandatory for patients with suspected or established diabetes. The criterion is not included in the list of investigated parameters in clinical blood analysis. To determine it, blood is donated for biochemical studies. You can spend in a municipal or private laboratory.
Measurement is available at home. To do this, you must have a special device - an analyzer. After applying a drop of blood, the device will show the amount of hemoglobin, glucose and cholesterol. The advantages of the methodology include the availability of measurements at any time and compactness. Disadvantages: high cost of devices and high accuracy of measurements.
Preparing the child for analysis
The accuracy of the results depends on how correctly parents prepare the baby for the collection of biomaterial. And also reduces the likelihood of the need for repeated research. It is important to follow the 5 rules for preparing a child:
- The last food intake in children under 1 year should be no later than 2 hours before blood collection. Children from 3-5 years old need to increase the time interval to 6 hours, older ones - up to 8 hours,
- for 1 day, fried and smoked dishes are excluded from the child’s diet,
- on the eve of the trip to the laboratory should not attend sports training,
- blood is surrendered in peace. If the baby is afraid of the upcoming procedure, then it should be reassured.
- It is necessary to inform the laboratory employee about the medication intake by the little patient.
After receiving the results of the analysis it is necessary to visit the pediatrician. The doctor interprets the data and prescribe treatment if necessary.
Important: when selecting normal values and comparing with the obtained data, the type of biomaterial under investigation should be taken into account. Thus, the amount of iron-containing protein is 15% higher in venous blood.
When choosing between venous and capillary blood should be preferred first. Since its biochemical composition is more permanent. When collecting venous blood, the risk of hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells and release of cell contents) is much lower. This means that there is no need for a second blood collection procedure.
One of the most important preventive rules is the regular measurement of the indicator for children (1 time in 3 months). This will allow to detect pathology at an early stage, when treatment does not require serious interventions. The main task in maintaining normal hemoglobin in a baby lies with the parents. Since the indicator is extremely sensitive to the diet of the child.
During the period of childbearing and breastfeeding a woman should limit the intake of any drugs. The need for the use of iron preparations and their dosage is determined by the attending physician. The rule applies to children's vitamin and mineral complexes.
Children should have a sufficient amount of meat dishes, vegetables and fruits in their diet. Breastfeeding is desirable in the first year of infancy.
Summing up, we highlight the main points:
- the hemoglobin rate depends on the child's age, the maximum values are fixed in infants,
- for timely monitoring of the indicator value, it is recommended to donate blood once every 3 months,
- elevated hemoglobin indicates dehydration in a child, congenital heart defects, lung disease, severe physical or emotional fatigue. If abnormality is detected, additional laboratory and instrumental examinations of a small patient should be performed to clarify the reason for the change in hemoglobin level.
Julia Martynovich (Peshkova)
In 2014 she graduated with honors from the FSBEI HE Orenburg State University with a degree in microbiology. Graduate postgraduate FGBOU Orenburg GAU.
In 2015 at the Institute of Cellular and Intracellular Symbiosis, the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences underwent advanced training in the additional professional program "Bacteriology".
Winner of the All-Russian competition for the best scientific work in the nomination "Biological sciences" 2017.
What affects the level of hemoglobin in the blood?
The rate will vary depending on:
- Age of the child. The maximum level is observed in newborns, but after a few weeks the hemoglobin begins to gradually decrease. That is why it is impossible to estimate the indicator on a child’s blood test form without specifying age. For example, a hemoglobin level of 110 g / l in a 2-year-old child is within the normal range, but for a baby at the age of 3 months, this figure is a sign of anemia.
- Baby food. Breast-fed babies suffer from lower hemoglobin levels less than breast-fed babies. In children older than one year, eating disorders are the most common cause of changes in hemoglobin levels.
- Health conditions. Hemoglobin is reduced or increased in various diseases, which helps in their diagnosis.
- The course of pregnancy and childbirth. The hemoglobin level is influenced by the mother’s diseases during gestation, blood loss during labor, features of umbilical cord ligation, the period of birth, multiple pregnancy and other factors.
- Genetic factor. If the mother's health is normal, but the hemoglobin level is always slightly below normal, this situation can also be observed in the child.
- Time of year The smaller frequency and duration of walks in the autumn-winter period leads to a slight decrease in hemoglobin in a child at this time.
Hemoglobin and its main task in the body
Hemoglobin is a complex protein that is part of the main blood cells, red blood cells. It consists of 2 main components: hemo (iron, gives blood red color) and globin (protein).
Formed hemoglobin (new cells) in the bone marrow. Its average duration is 120 days. Further, it is destroyed in the liver and turns into bilirubin (bile pigment) and excreted from the body with feces.
The main purpose of hemoglobin is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues., and also intake of carbon dioxide from the organs and its delivery to the pulmonary system, for removal from the body. Oxygenated blood has a bright scarlet color, and when carbon dioxide is transported, the color of the blood becomes dark.
An overabundance or deficiency of hemoglobin changes the amount of oxygen in the blood, which disrupts the functioning of organs. The rate of metabolic processes slows down.
Additionally, hemoglobin is involved in the regulation of the acid-base composition of the blood (prevents alkalization of the plasma), retains the right amount of moisture in the tissues.
Ways to determine the level of hemoglobin in the blood in children
To determine the concentration of iron in the blood of a child, it is necessary to donate blood from a finger. A vein fence does not provide accurate information. This analysis is prepared no more than 5 hours. To measure the amount of hemoglobin used unit g / l (how many grams of protein per liter of blood).
What affects the hemoglobin in the blood:
|Clock||In the morning, the amount of hemoglobin in the blood is higher than in the evening.|
|Food||Food affects the composition of the blood, the concentration of hemoglobin decreases, as it participates in the process of digesting food|
|Physical exercise||If in the evening the child will participate for a long time in active physical games, the analysis will show incorrect results.|
|Child's position||It is impossible for the child to be in a horizontal position when taking the analysis. In this case, the blood from the finger flows to the internal organs, it distorts the result.|
|Blood sampling||When taking an analysis, it is impossible to press hard on a finger, since intercellular fluid enters the blood, as this will underestimate the hemoglobin index.|
|Place of procedure||When a vein is taken from the vein, a tourniquet is applied to the vessels, which leads to stagnation of blood and an increase in the amount of hemoglobin.|
|Diseases accompanied by dehydration||With a lack of fluid in the body, it is not enough in the blood plasma, and the amount of hemoglobin is growing. This distorts the result.|
Doctors recommended testing for hemoglobin in the blood in the morning and on an empty stomach.
In the evening you need to give the child more water.so that the blood in the morning goes without the need for strong pressure on the finger. When checking the presence of iron dynamics, parents should not change the diet, time of delivery and activity of the child.
Norm hemoglobin in children 0-3 months
The hemoglobin rate in a child after birth has high rates, which decrease by the 4th month of life. Due to the breakdown of a large amount of this protein in children, congenital jaundice may develop, which is eliminated on its own on the 4th day.
Indicators of iron from birth to the 3rd month:
- from birth to the end of 3 days the indicator should vary in the range: 175-240 g / l,
- by the end of the 1st week the norm reaches the marks: 160-210 g / l,
- in the performance of the child of the 1st month, the amount of iron is: 150-185 g / l,
- in 2 months the norm is: 100-150 g / l,
- by the end of the 3rd month the indicator reaches the mark of: 105-130 g / l.
At this age, minor abnormalities are not an indicator of pathology and do not require medical treatment.
Hemoglobin norm in children 8-12 months
From 8 months to 1 year old, the level of hemoglobin decreases slightly, although the limits of tolerances remain the same and are: 110-140 g / l.
Average values (g / l):
- 8 months - 130,
- 9 months - 130,
- 10 months - 125,
- 11 months - 125,
- 12 months is 120.
Already from this age, deviations from the norm values may indicate the beginning of the development of pathology. If deviations were observed before, the pediatrician will schedule a retake of the analysis.
Norm hemoglobin in children from 1 year and older
Until the child reached the 1st year, the lack of hemoglobin could be replenished by stocks accumulated in utero. Upon reaching 12 months, iron begins to be produced by the body independently. Therefore, for children after a year an important role is played by good nutrition.
Norms of iron in the blood from 1 year to 12 years (g / l):
- 1-2 years average reading 120, tolerances: 110-140,
- From 3 to 4 years, the average reading 125, permissible deviations: 110-140,
- From 5 to 7 years, the average reading is 130, the tolerances are 120-140,
- From 7 to 12 years, the average value is 135, permissible deviations: 115-150.
After 12 years, children begin sexual development. The iron index is already changing depending on the sex of the child.
The rate of hemoglobin in a child by age and sex
The norm in girls (g / l):
- from 12 to 15 years, the rate varies 110-150,
- from 15 to 18 years, the limits are 115-155.
Norm in boys (g / l):
- from 12 to 15 years the permissible limits are 120-160,
- from 15 to 18, the value varies from 115-160.
From this age, deviation of indicators from the norm in girls (with a slight change and without additional symptoms) may occur during menstruation. Therefore, the pediatrician should be informed of the presence of menstruation during the period of blood collection.
What hemoglobin should be in premature babies
The rate of hemoglobin in a premature baby is different from that of children born on time.
This is influenced by 3 factors:
- The child did not receive iron in utero, which is formed in the last months of development,
- Bone marrow is not fully ripe for producing the right amount of iron.
In premature babies, the allowed lower limit of hemoglobin at birth is 160 g / lwhile at full-term at 5 g / l. above. By the year, the lower limit falls to 100 g / l, for full-term 110 g / l. The mark of 85 g / l is considered critical, then the child needs urgent blood transfusion.
Iron deficiency can manifest by the 3rd month of lifethat is dangerous for the child (he will start to lag behind in mental and physical development). By the 3rd year, the child's iron level returns to normal, with proper treatment, which is established by a pediatrician.
Factors affecting hemoglobin levels in children
In a healthy baby, hemoglobin levels may begin to decline.
Smoking and alcohol during pregnancy can not only have a negative effect on the hemoglobin level in the child, but also lead to much more serious pathologies in the health of the baby.
The development of pathology can occur in the presence of the following reasons:
- course of pregnancy. If there was a multiple pregnancy, prematurity or the mother smoked and drank during the period of carrying the child. Mom's cold and medication. As well as difficult childbirth with injuries
- in infants, iron deficiency can develop due to mom's poor diet. For the artificialists, the amount of iron is influenced by the feeding mixture,
- in children older the introduction of complementary foods affects the level of iron,
- hemoglobin level decreases in diseasestherefore, a sudden decrease in iron can signal a latent disease,
- blood diseases can be inherited, but not manifest from birth,
- presence of internal bleeding (open ulcer, rupture of a small vessel).
The pediatrician initially checks the hereditary factor and how the childbirth proceeded. When these indicators are negative, the child’s nutrition and the presence of hidden diseases are checked.
Symptoms of high hemoglobin
A slight increase in the amount of iron in the blood can be temporary and runs on its own. At the same time, there is no symptomatology of pathology.
One of the symptoms of high hemoglobin in a child is refusal to eat or poor appetite.
With a significant increase in hemoglobin, for a long time, the child has symptoms:
- The independent appearance of bruises on the body, which go away for a long time. Or their education with a light touch.
- Upon receipt of abrasions or scratches, an increased viscosity of the excreted blood is noted.
- Headache caused by hypertension.
- The child gets tired with small loads and sleeps more than usual.
- Appetite is reduced to a minimum or completely absent.
Too thick blood and the sudden appearance of bruises are the hallmarks of the disease. When referring to a pediatrician, the cause of the pathology will be determined, as well as how much the permissible level is exceeded. Too thick blood can lead to a quick and sudden death of the child.
Causes of hemoglobin increase
Increased hemoglobin can be caused by serious pathologies or temporary factors. After their removal, the composition of the blood returns to normal.
Active games and intense physical activity can lead to a short-term increase in hemoglobin.
Causes of short-term increase in hemoglobin in the blood:
- enhanced physical activity, active games. In this process, the body uses more oxygen, so the brain, for a sufficient replenishment of their tissues, sends a signal of an increase in red blood cells,
- living in mountains or places with thin air. The body in this case is experiencing a lack of oxygen, because it is small in the air. To increase its concentration in the blood, more red blood cells are produced,
- long stay in a room with dry air. This leads to a temporary dehydration. As a result, blood clots and hemoglobin increase,
- frequent use of foods with high iron content,
- burns, to restore the skin, the body produces more hemoglobin,
- side effects of medication,
- smoking in adolescence.
These reasons should be excluded by the pediatrician, since treatment is not required to eliminate the pathology.
Dangerous causes of iron increase:
- infectious and endocrine diseases (rotavirus, diabetes), accompanied by loss of fluid from the body,
- pulmonary dysfunctionaccompanied by respiratory failure,
- pathology of the heart and blood vessels:
- increased red blood cell production bone marrow as a result of a malfunction in the body or in neoplasms (cancer or benign tumors),
- renal dysfunction
To reduce the amount of iron, it is necessary to eliminate the root cause of the appearance of the disease. If the disease is not treatable, then the pediatrician is prescribed medication.
The danger of high hemoglobin in children
Normal hemoglobin level is necessary for the full functioning of the body. Increasing it may cause a child to develop dangerous complications. Due to the increase in red cells, blood becomes thick and viscous. Therefore oxygen is delivered more slowly to all organs, including oxygen starvation is experiencing the brain.
High hemoglobin and, as a result, thick and viscous blood, can cause blood clots, which is dangerous for life
Thick blood can clog up blood vessels or, due to the altered consistency, blood clots can form. Also, the vessels wear out quickly, and hemorrhage can be not only in the form of bruises on the skin, but also in the organs. Thick blood can cause heart attack in childhood.
An increased amount of iron is deposited in the digestive tract, thereby the functioning of organs is disturbed and the probability of developing pathologies increases. Late treatment may result in a child with mental retardation, development of abnormalities in the digestive tract and death.
Treatment. Preparations, folk remedies
When elevated hemoglobin is detected, the pediatrician prescribes a comprehensive treatment., which will depend on the root causes of the development of pathology. If an increase in red blood cells is a symptom of the disease, then therapy is necessary for this disease.
The child is adjusted diet and drink. Excessive fluid intake will eliminate dehydration and thin the blood. Additionally, for the period of treatment products with a high content of iron (pomegranate, buckwheat, liver) are excluded. In the diet should be more fish products, poultry, legumes.
Excessive fluid intake by a child is important not only for maintaining normal hemoglobin levels, but also for the health of the child’s body as a whole.
During the treatment of the root cause or if the increase in iron was a consequence of the disease, the child is prescribed blood thinners. Their purpose is to remove excess hemoglobin from the blood.
More often in children's therapy are used:
Also vitamin preparations are excluded with the content of vitamins B and C. They promote the absorption of iron in the body. Dosage, course and type of medications are prescribed by the pediatrician, self-medication can be fatal.
School-age children in co-treatment can use leech therapy. They remove the “bad blood”, have a beneficial effect on the state of the vessels, reduce the likelihood of blood clots.
You can also eliminate excess hemoglobin by bleeding through the use of cans. In severe cases, bleeding can be prescribed. using the incision of the veins (this procedure is performed in the hospital).
Treatment with leeches with high hemoglobin in children is permissible only in extreme cases!
Treatment with leeches and bloodletting can not be carried out with contraindications:
- pathologies of heart development and low pressure,
- bleeding disorder,
- in girls during menstruation,
- mental abnormalities,
- skin diseases
- age up to 7 years.
The room should be well ventilated and with humidified air. The child should spend more time outdoors.
You can use traditional medicine recipes: flaxseed oil, tea with lemon, or just lemon water. Thins blood cranberry juice. During treatment, you should regularly take a blood test for iron.
Features of the treatment of children under one year
In the treatment of infants, it is necessary to provide the child with abundant drinking. It is advisable to give water between feedings.
The diet of a nursing mother plays a huge role in the development of the baby, in particular, and relative to the level of his hemoglobin
When breastfeeding the child can receive drugs through milk, the mother must also follow a dietary diet with reduced iron content. When artificial feeding mixtures are selected with a lower content of hemoglobin.
The introduction of complementary foods should occur under the supervision of a pediatrician.while iron-containing products are introduced last. It is not recommended to exclude them completely. Additionally, mothers should spend more time walking with children and humidifying the air in the nursery.
Symptoms of low hemoglobin
The amount of iron in the child’s body decreases gradually. Initially, the pathology proceeds without visible symptoms and can be determined by taking a blood test.
Dizziness, pallor and dry skin, decreased attention and memory - all this may indicate anemia
A large decrease in hemoglobin in the blood is accompanied by symptoms:
- skin becomes pale and dry
- decreased appetite and weight gain,
- the child becomes sluggish, sleeps more, but sleep is restless,
- at school age, children may complain of dizziness. There is a lack of attention and memory loss,
- under the nail plates and on the body white spots may be noted,
- under the eyes appears puffiness and blue,
- the pulse is accelerating as the heart needs to push more blood to deliver the right amount of oxygen.
In addition, parents begin to notice the child’s lag behind their peers., both physically and mentally. The disease can occur in 3 stages (mild, moderate and severe). In severe anemia, the child may be unconscious and urgent donor blood will be required.
Causes of low hemoglobin in children
Iron reduction may be temporary and permanent., depending on the cause of the pathology that caused the development. With the temporary appearance of pathology, the composition of the blood returns to normal after the removal of the provoking factor. In other cases, drug treatment is required.
Anemia of the expectant mother during pregnancy can cause low hemoglobin in the baby
Causes of hemoglobin reduction:
- Anemia in the mother during gestation. As a result, the child does not have iron stores and it is possible to pass on the disease by inheritance.
- Mom during pregnancy and lactation observed a vegetarian diet or was not eating enough, the child did not receive the necessary iron with food,
- Late entry of iron-containing products (fish, meat, buckwheat porridge).
- Lack of vitamins B9 and B12.
- Dysfunction of the digestive tract in connection with the development of pathology (dysbacteriosis, ulcer, gastritis).
- Tumor neoplasms.
- Infectious and autoimmune diseases.
- A side effect of taking medication.
- Bleeding, internal or external.
- Violation of blood formation may be associated with pathology in the bone marrow.
Anemia caused by malnutrition is cured by a diet rich in iron, without the use of drugs. Menus and medicines are prescribed by a pediatrician.
Danger of low hemoglobin
When parents ignore the symptoms or expect an independent restoration of the level of iron, then the child at this time the organs and tissues do not receive the necessary amount of oxygen. The brain, digestive tract and muscles do not function at full strength.
Pediatricians, with prolonged anemia, noted a lag in mental development and growth, frequent catarrhal diseases, poor physical development.
Menu to maintain hemoglobin in children
Depending on whether hemoglobin is increased or decreased in a child, parents should make a menu.
If there is not enough iron, then dishes with a high iron content should prevail:
- boiled meat
- red vegetables and fruits,
- buckwheat, oatmeal and wheat cereals,
- spinach and other greens,
- products containing vitamins B9 and B12.
With an increased iron content in the diet, products with a low iron content should prevail:
- fish products
- poultry meat
- milk products,
- soy products,
- flour products (bread, horns).
The menu must be discussed with a pediatrician. It is imperative that the growing body does not lack nutrients. Therefore, the diet should be varied, but with the right hemoglobin content in dishes. When compiling it takes into account the age and energy needs of the child.
How often to check hemoglobin in children
The first blood test in a child is taken immediately after birth. Then before each vaccination.Scheduled blood donation occurs once every 6 months (up to 3 years), if the child is healthy.
A blood test is taken from a child up to 3 years every six months (provided that the baby is healthy)
If there is a change in the amount of iron, the pediatrician prescribes testing 1 time in 4 weeks. Thus, a decrease or increase in iron is monitored during treatment. If no changes are noted, the pediatrician replaces the drug.
The hemoglobin rate is monitored from birth. Pediatricians, when viewing the analysis, note an increase or decrease in iron content. If necessary, a second blood test is done and treatment is prescribed. Deviations in the child can cause a violation in mental and physical development, as well as reduced performance of the organs of the whole organism.
Article design: Natalie Podolskaya
What is the difference between "child" hemoglobin and "adult"?
Hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, is a building material for red blood cells (erythrocytes), it is necessary for the transport of oxygen from the lungs to all cells of the body. Low hemoglobin leads to oxygen starvation and, as a result, reduced immunity and developmental delay in children. Increased hemoglobin in a child is also dangerous - this condition is fraught with vascular occlusion. To maintain normal hemoglobin, the body needs a sufficient supply of iron.
Hemoglobin begins to be produced in a child while still in the womb at the earliest stages of fetus formation. This hemoglobin is fundamentally different from hemoglobin in the blood of an adult and is called fetal hemoglobin. Shortly before birth, fetal hemoglobin begins to be replaced by the “adult” form of this protein, glycosylated hemoglobin. The complete replacement process ends at about one year old.
In the first years of life, the rate of hemoglobin in the blood of a child varies considerably with age. This indicator should be carefully monitored to notice critical deviations from the norm in time.
It is hemoglobin containing iron that makes blood red. But not all creatures on Earth have red blood. For example, the blood of octopuses, lobsters and crabs has a blue-green tint, because in it the function of hemoglobin is performed by another protein - hemocyanin, which contains copper, and not iron.
How to find out hemoglobin level?
The level of hemoglobin can be easily detected - you just need to donate blood for a general analysis. This analysis includes the determination of hemoglobin concentration, which is measured in grams per liter. To get accurate information, blood must be donated before feeding, preferably in the morning. Within one and a half to two hours after feeding, hemoglobin decreases.
There are also indirect signs indicating low hemoglobin in children, in particular, pale skin and flaking.
What is the rate of hemoglobin in the blood of a child?
The hemoglobin level in newborns in the first days of life is very high - 180–240 g / l. This is explained by the fact that the baby has a reserve of iron accumulated during his time in the womb. In premature babies, hemoglobin is often below normal — 160–220 g / l. Such babies have a high risk of anemia - a critical decrease in hemoglobin in the blood.
By the end of the first week, the hemoglobin level in children drops to 160–200 g / l. In the following weeks and months, hemoglobin gradually rises - by the age of one month, its rate is already 120–160 g / l, and by the year - 110–130 g / l.
At 5 years, 110–140 g / l is considered the norm, and at 10–120–140 g / l.
At puberty, by about 15 years, the hemoglobin level in children reaches “adult” indicators - 125–165 g / l.
Causes and signs of hemoglobin increase
Different reasons can lead to an increase in hemoglobin level in a baby. The most common are:
- dehydration - both as a result of insufficient fluid intake and overheating, and as a result of diarrhea,
- congenital heart diseases, including pulmonary heart disease,
- oncological diseases,
- violations of the synthesis of the hormone erythropoietin,
- intestinal obstruction
- blood diseases.
Sometimes a slightly elevated hemoglobin level can be considered a variant of the norm. In people living in highlands, hemoglobin is slightly elevated - this is a reaction to rarefied air. Hemoglobin can also be slightly higher than normal in children who are very active in sports.
Children with elevated hemoglobin are usually sluggish and irritable, they suffer from drowsiness and fatigue, the skin sometimes takes on a reddish tint.
What is the risk of low hemoglobin in a child?
Reduced hemoglobin in children is more common than elevated. According to WHO, hemoglobin deficiency - anemia - occurs in 47.4% of children of preschool age and in 25.4% of schoolchildren.
Low hemoglobin in a child is a significant risk factor. It can lead to a lag in the development and development of heart and kidney diseases (they, along with the brain, are the first to suffer from oxygen starvation), impaired functioning of the immune system, skin diseases and edema. Without treatment, anemia can result in cardiomyopathy and heart failure, and these pathologies are deadly. With a critical decrease in hemoglobin level, even hypoxic coma is possible.
Signs of low hemoglobin in children are numerous, but not specific, in other words, they accompany not only anemia, but many other diseases. In any case, parents should be alerted to such symptoms as weakness, lethargy, tearfulness and drowsiness of the baby, loss of appetite, pale skin. Older children may complain of dizziness and headache. With low hemoglobin, cognitive functions are noticeably affected - memory, ability to concentrate, learning. Many cases of poor performance is not due to laziness, but a lack of iron and low hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin should be tested regularly, at least once every three months. It is not easy to determine the development of anemia by indirect signs, very often its symptoms are ignored or attributed to other causes. It is necessary to do a blood test for hemoglobin after any infectious diseases, abrupt changes in diet (for example, after prescribing a diet when allergies or diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are detected) and any unexpected changes in the baby's behavior. If your child from an active and cheerful baby suddenly turned into a sleepy and crybaby, you should immediately take the direction for analysis.
Low hemoglobin is often reflected in physical development - such babies slowly grow and lag behind healthy peers in weight and height.
Sometimes analyzes show that hemoglobin in a child is lowered, and this causes a reasonable concern of the parents. What can cause low hemoglobin in a child? There are several reasons:
- Infectious diseases and parasitic lesions.
- Lack of iron in the mother's diet during pregnancy and lactation, or lack of iron in the diet of the child. Often, low hemoglobin is observed in children of women on a vegan diet. Plant food also contains iron, but it is absorbed worse than what is present in animal products.
- The deficiency of vitamins necessary for iron to be absorbed into the blood - these include folic acid and vitamin C. Copper also plays an important role in the absorption of iron.
- Diseases of the digestive system, in which iron absorption is impaired.
- Blood loss after injuries and operations, as well as after regular bleeding, such as nasal.
- Lack of physical activity and fresh air.
- Congenital abnormalities, in particular thalassemia.
How can I correct a slight decrease in hemoglobin in a child
"Fortunately, a serious decrease in the level of hemoglobin in babies occurs infrequently, - says Pharmstandard company expert. - Basically, such a deviation is caused by improper nutrition. And this is not always the fault of the parents. Everyone knows how picky kids can be when it comes to food. Alas, many foods rich in iron and vitamins are not included in the list of favorite children's delicacies, and sometimes it is impossible to persuade a child to eat broccoli, lentils, or liver. How, then, to replenish the supply of iron and prevent a decrease in hemoglobin?
For this there is a hematogen - a sweet chewing tile, which resembles a toffee candy in taste. Hematogen is produced from albumin protein, a valuable source of iron, with the addition of condensed milk and molasses. Hematogen is a dietary supplement that allows you to compensate for a slight lack of iron in the body of a baby. Our “Ferrohematogen” is additionally enriched with vitamins and minerals that help the gland to be absorbed - folic acid, vitamin C and copper. ”