The decrease in leukocytes in the blood is called leukopenia; this condition is revealed according to the results of a general and extensive blood test. This group is heterogeneous. It includes several populations of cells involved in inflammatory reactions, immune and autoimmune processes.
According to the presence or absence of granules inside the cell, which are clearly distinguishable under a microscope after special treatment, granulocytes and agranulocytes are distinguished.
The normal ratio of white blood cells of different populations is (%):
- stab neutrophils (immature) - 2 - 4,
- segmented neutrophils (mature) - 47 - 67,
- eosinophils - 0.5 - 5,
- basophils - 0 -1,
- lymphocytes - 25 - 35,
- monocytes - 3 to 11.
Leukocytes are involved in anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic processes, their number in the body is constantly changing. If the changes remain within the normal range, then these physiological states are not considered dangerous and do not threaten with a decrease in immunity.
The norm for different types of white cells is considered ranges of values (number of cells * per 10 9 / l or thousand / μl):
- leukocytes - 4-9,
- band - 0, 08 - 0, 35,
- segmented - 2 - 5.9,
- basophils - 0 - 0.088,
- eosinophils - 0.02 - 0.44,
- lymphocytes - 1 - 3,
- monocytes - 0.08 - 0.53.
Total leukocytes can be normal, but a detailed blood test sometimes reveals that neutrophils are reduced, the number of eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes or monocytes is reduced or increased.
With low leukocytes, a detailed analysis is required to determine the reason for the decrease in different cell populations in the blood.
Causes of a decrease in total leukocytes
The reasons for the low white blood cell count can be:
- viral, bacterial infections - influenza, hepatitis, typhoid fever, measles, septic endocarditis, measles, malaria,
- endocrine diseases - Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly, sometimes thyrotoxicosis,
- inflammatory diseases of the digestive system - gastritis, cholecystoangeocholitis, colitis,
- hematopoietic pathologies - bone marrow hypoplasia, leukemia,
- Hodgkin's disease,
- autoimmune diseases - systemic lupus erythematosus,
- radiation effect
- poisoning with benzene, DDT, arsenic,
- metastasis to the bone marrow cancer.
Low levels of leukocytes in the blood are not necessarily associated with any disease, it can be caused by taking medicines, such as antihistamines, antibacterial drugs, anticonvulsants, painkillers.
In addition, if the indicators of leukocytes in the blood are reduced, this does not mean that the diagnosis has been finalized, it is necessary to make sure that there is no error, for which the analysis needs to be retaken.
If leukocytes, erythrocytes, platelets in the blood are reduced, the cause of this condition may be a bone marrow disease, a viral infection, intoxication.
The decrease in the total number of leukocytes to less than 4 thousand / μl, low neutrophils, elevated lymphocytes in the blood - this combination suggests that severe infection (tuberculosis, brucellosis), chronic leukemia develops in the body.
Causes of a decrease in white cell populations
The number of leukocytes is not constant, and not any decrease or increase in the concentration of white blood cells is dangerous for the body. The reason for the mandatory treatment to the doctor should be the results of tests:
- decrease of leukocytes in the blood below 3 thousand / μl,
- lower neutrophil level - less than 1 thousand / μl.
The body’s resistance to infections is sharply deteriorating with a decrease in the total number of granulocytes. The level of granulocytes below 0.75 thousand / μl with leukocytes in the blood of less than 1 thousand / μl, which is much less than the norm, means:
- high susceptibility to fungal, bacterial infection,
- this may indicate the possibility of an immune response to isoniazid, aspirin, aspirin, phenacetin, and indomethacin.
Agranulocytosis can cause radiation exposure, lymphoma, collagenosis, and hepatitis. A newborn child has lowered indicators of granulocytes, if an immune response has occurred between the blood of the mother and the child.
Neutrophils are a group of white blood cells designed to fight infection. The decline in this population can be permanent and temporary. Neutropenia is considered to be a condition when the number of neutrophils is less than 1.8 thousand / μl.
A direct threat to health does not arise until the number of this population falls to the level of 0.5 thousand / μl. Such an indicator, and especially if it is reduced to 0.2 ppm / μl or less, indicates severe neutropenia, is characterized as agranulocytosis.
The reasons for the decrease in leukocytes of this group in the blood can be:
- viral, bacterial infections with high fever,
- rheumatoid arthritis,
- aplastic anemia - a disease in which the production of all blood cells is disturbed (pancytopenia),
- septicemia - mass release of pathogens into the blood,
- anemia caused by a lack of vitamins B9 and B12,
- hypersplenic syndrome - a condition where the number of circulating blood cells decreases, although their production in the spleen is increased,
- prostration is an extreme degree of physical and mental exhaustion.
Neutropenia may be in the nature of a congenital hereditary disease and manifest a temporary decrease in the number of 3-6 days every 3-4 weeks.
What does it mean if the total leukocytes and neutrophils in the blood are below normal, for which diseases is this condition characteristic of?
A significant proportion of the total number of leukocytes accounts for the population of neutrophils. This serves as a reason and explains why a combination of low total white blood cell count and low neutrophil count is so common.
If neutrophils are lowered in the blood test and total white blood cells are lowered, this always indicates a high risk of infection, which means that the prognosis of the disease has worsened and the probability of complication has increased.
Both general leukocytes and neutrophils are lowered with diseases:
- viral infections
- diseases of the digestive tract - peptic ulcers, cholecystitis, gastritis,
- purulent chronic infections,
- typhoid fever,
- shock conditions.
At the same time, leukocytes are lowered in the blood and neutrophils are reduced in adults, with such complications of rheumatoid arthritis as Felty's syndrome, alcoholism can also be the cause of the analysis deviation.
Severe neutropenia with a decrease in neutrophils to 0.1 thousand / μl and less is observed in congenital Kostman syndrome. This disease is characterized by an increase in monocytes and eosinophils, a decrease in lymphocytes.
Causes of low white blood cells
White blood cells are white blood cells that are necessary to fight infection, bacteria and viruses. They play the main role in the work of immunity and in opposition to various diseases. If the level of these cells deviates from the normal range in one direction or another, this result should be analyzed and corrected.
If we talk about the causes, we can distinguish three main, from which there are already "ramifications", including diseases:
- Insufficient amount of substances that are necessary for the synthesis of leukocytes.
- The disappearance of leukocytes in the blood structure.
- Problems with the work of the bone marrow.
Leukopenia indicates the development of a disease. Its presence and provokes the fall of the white bodies. There are several reasons for this condition. Let's talk in more detail about each of them.
Diseases and drugs
Leukocytes in the blood can be lowered due to serious diseases, as well as with long-term use of certain drugs.
- If a person has had flu, malaria, typhoid, measles or rubella.
- After taking a variety of antibiotics, anti-virus drugs, painkillers.
- In oncological diseases, not only the disease itself contributes to the development of leukopenia, but the methods of its treatment also affect the level of white cells in the blood. So, chemotherapy courses destroy them in large quantities.
- With hyperfunction of the thyroid gland and with an excess of hormones, because of this, leukocytes are destroyed.
- Severe infectious processes (sepsis, tuberculosis, brucellosis) and viral lesions (rubella, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, herpes). In this case, leukopenia is often a poor prognostic factor.
- Parasitic infections, among which can be distinguished toxoplasmosis, trichinosis and chlamydia. In this case, the leukocytes are transferred from the blood to the tissue fluid to combat harmful viruses.
- Autoimmune conditions (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, etc.).
- In cases of diseases of the spleen and liver, which arose due to improper diet.
The reduction of leukocytes in different situations can be peculiar. To find out the cause of this phenomenon, you need to fully examine.
Lack of substances needed to create new leukocytes
This is the simplest and most common reason. A good doctor pays attention to it even if the white blood cells are normal, but the figure is close to its lower limit. As a rule, this reason does not lead to significant deviations from the norm, and is associated with a drop in red blood indices (erythrocytes, hemoglobin), since for their synthesis the same trace elements and substances are needed:
- vitamins: thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), folic acid (B9), ascorbic acid (C),
- trace elements: iodine, cobalt, copper, manganese, zinc, iron,
- arachidonic acid, selenium, proteins.
To bring the indicators back to normal, enough to adjust the diet. In the diet should appear the above products rich in substances responsible for the synthesis of leukocytes. If the adjustment of the diet did not help, then the doctor will prescribe drugs that will supply the body with the necessary substances. It should be remembered, if the reduced leukocytes in the blood are held for a long time, then it is necessary to exclude cancer, after passing a more thorough examination.
Leukocyte death in the body
Sometimes there are situations when the body actively creates new white bodies, but they die in the blood. There can be several explanations:
- Normal immune response, redistribution of leukocytes. A disease agent that attempts to destroy leukocytes enters the body locally (through the so-called "entrance gate of infection"). Leukocytes in this case will rush to the damaged tissues, partially leaving the vascular bed. Those. in the body they will continue to act, but in the blood itself the number of leukocytes will fall, and this will affect the results of the analysis.
- Another reason for the reduction of leukocytes in the blood can be their destruction. This happens if the body is poisoned. Toxins can be ingested by micro doses for a long time. For example, from the air, if you live near harmful production. Often they are found in water and food. Heavy metals, insect poisons, fungi that appear on the products stored incorrectly - all this becomes a source of poisoning. Then neutrophils rush to fight poisons and die.
If the percentage of segmented neutrophils is also reduced in the blood test results, then it is most likely a bacterial infectious disease. Viral diseases also cause severe influenza or hepatitis.
Disruption of the bone marrow
Since all subgroups of leukocytes are created and ripen until they reach the blood in the bone marrow, any damage to this organ leads to a drop in the index in the blood test results. It is not so much about physical injuries, but about the factors of internal origin.
There may be a lot of such pathologies, we note only the main ones:
- Intoxication. And it can be as simple poisons, alcohol, nicotine, food poisons, and complex - heavy metals, arsenic, medicinal poisons.
- Autoimmune damage in which the body destroys the cells of its own body, taking them for a disease agent.
- Congenital diseases. The occurrence of leukopenia is triggered by certain genetic diseases that affect the normal functioning of the bone marrow and the production of leukocytes (myelokatexis, Kostmann syndrome).
- Conducted treatment. Low white blood cell counts can be triggered by the treatment of some serious diseases (cancers, viral hepatitis).
- Tumor displacement. Metastasis of the tumor in the bone marrow leads to the destruction of the leukopoetic tissue and its replacement with the tumor tissue. Leukopoietic tissue is responsible for the generation of new leukocytes, and its deficiency instantly affects the fall of the indicator in the blood test.
- Chemotherapy, interferon administration - all this is necessary for severe lesions of the body, but it affects the work of the bone marrow.
It should be remembered that such bone marrow pathologies are extremely rare, therefore, with a small decrease in leukocytes, it is too early to sound the alarm.
The norm of leukocytes in the blood is calculated using a special formula and depending on the age it looks like this
- Adult men and women 4.0-9.0 × 109 / l,
- Children from 6 to 10 years old - 6.0-11.0 × 109 / l,
- Children from 1 to 3 years old - 6.0-17.0 × 109 / l,
- Newborn babies - 9 to 30 × 109 / l.
Leukocytes are divided into granular (granulocytes) and non-granular (agranulocytes) species. If the blood leukocytes are lowered a little, then the decrease is at the level of 1-2 units below the age norm, all that exceeds 2 units is a severe leukopenia.
Blood leukopenia most often accompanies the onset of pathological processes associated with the destruction of white blood cells. For the treatment of this condition, drugs are used, the action of which is aimed at stimulating leukopoiesis. They are divided into two groups:
- To stimulate metabolic processes. These include Pentoxyl, Methyluracil, Leucogen, etc. They have the properties of cell regeneration and the ability to restore immunity at the cellular and humoral level.
- To repeat colony-stimulating factors. This is Sagramostim, Filgrastim, Lenograstim.
Leukopenia should not be categorically taken as an independent disease. However, to eliminate it, it is necessary to eliminate the factor that served as the etiology for obtaining such a blood test. Thus, it is extremely important to contact a specialist to establish the exact cause.
It is worth noting that getting rid of leukopenia is not always possible. For example, if it was caused by excessive taking of dipyrone or sulfonamides, then to normalize the performance of the analysis it is enough to simply refuse to take these medicines, but chemotherapy cannot be stopped. In addition, congenital diseases of the bone marrow of unknown etiology or caused at the genetic level in our days are practically not amenable to treatment, as well as autoimmune pathologies.
How to increase white blood cells at home?
It is possible to increase the level of leukocytes in the blood in a variety of ways, however, diet plays a fundamental role in the process of treatment. As practice shows, without compliance with the diet, it is almost impossible to increase the number of leukocytes, even if you take special medicines. Such a diet is prescribed by the attending physician.Usually, the amount of carbohydrates consumed is limited, instead the diet is enriched with protein foods and vitamins, especially ascorbic and folic acid. You also need to eat foods high in choline and the amino acid lysine.
The main products in the treatment of leukopenia - we increase white blood cells at home:
- Eat more citrus fruits, various berries.
- Useful is the use of bee uterine milk to raise the level of leukocytes. Its quantity should not be too large, depending on the recommendations of the doctor.
- Allowed to drink large amounts of milk and other dairy products.
- Eat more vegetables and legumes, boiled or raw, with high fiber content.
- As additional vitamins, you can use vitamin C, B9 - effectively increase white blood cells.
- Useful barley broth, which is infused for half an hour on the fire to increase the concentration of grain. To do this, one and a half cups of barley should be poured into a two-liter dish and filled with water. Boil on the fire up to half of the boiling away water, and then drain the liquid to drink 200 grams twice a day.
If a low white blood cell count is found, it is recommended to consult a hematologist, a specialist in the treatment of blood diseases, for treatment. A hematologist must find the cause of the leukopenia and prescribe treatment. In some cases, consultation with an oncologist, an infectious disease specialist or an immunologist is necessary.
What causes leukopenia
The reasons for the fall in the number of white bodies are conventionally divided into 5 categories, which we will discuss in more detail later in this article:
- Low intake of elements for the production of white blood cells,
- Bone marrow pathologies (formation of new bodies),
- Diseases of internal organs and systems
- Acceptance of pharmaceuticals.
Lack of essential nutrients
The following vitamins and microelements are necessary for the production of white bodies by the human body:
If the food lacks these elements, analyzes reveal a decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cells in combination with leukopenia (for their production, the body needs the same trace elements and vitamins).
Leukocytes descend gradually below the norm, therefore, when the index drops to the lower normal value, the doctor advises to adjust the diet. If the process does not slow down after optimizing the diet, then the reasons lie in other factors or in the inability to absorb the necessary substances from food. The process accompanies the development of anorexia and depletion of the body.
Bone marrow diseases
The primary reasons for which the analysis shows that leukocytes are lowered, are hidden in diseases of the bone marrow. The damaged organ produces little leukocytes, and this is reflected in the blood count. Leukopenia leads to:
- Congenital asymptomatic bone marrow pathologies,
- Malignant tumors and precancerous conditions - myelosarcoma, myelofibrosis,
- Germination of metastases from the foci of a malignant tumor in the bone marrow.
The tumor, penetrating into the bone marrow, replaces the normal hematopoietic tissue in which white blood cells are formed, among others. This leads to the fact that their number becomes lower in the bloodstream.
Very often, the leukocytes are lowered after human intoxication (the bone marrow for some time ceases to perform its functions - as if “turned off”). The causes can be in the abuse of drugs, alcohol, exposure to radioactive radiation, food intoxication, arsenic poisoning, toluene, heavy metals, mercury, benzene and similar substances. The number of white elements in the blood becomes less if a person has undergone radiation and chemotherapy.
Diseases of internal organs and systems
In the process of inflammatory and purulent diseases, if they occur locally, white blood cells may be completely absent in the bloodstream. This situation means that the defensive bodies rush to the site of the pathogenic process to perform their function, and their number in the body as a whole may even increase due to intensive formation. Reduced cells, down to zero, can be in the event of their complete destruction in the process of performing their function (in their life, one cell kills several pathogens and dies). This situation can occur if viruses or bacteria attack the body.
Autoimmune diseases (immune cells destroy healthy cells of the body) provoke a decrease in the number of white cells, they destroy themselves. With HIV infection, the body’s immune response is practically absent, and the production mechanisms of the cells of the defense system, leukocytes, are violated.
Diseases of internal organs can provoke a decrease in the number of white blood cells:
- Enhanced production of thyroid hormones,
- Pathologies of the spleen and liver (a kind of "base" for blood components),
- Gastrointestinal dysfunction (gastritis, colitis),
- Renal failure.
Medications affecting white blood cell counts
Significantly below the minimum numbers, the white cells of the circulatory system are omitted when taking certain medications. These include analgesics (painkillers), sulfonamides, cytostatics, barbiturates, anti-seizure drugs, antiallergic medicines, antidepressants, drugs with interferon, chloramphenicol, amidopyrine and some other pharmaceutical groups.
Leukocytes lowered: main symptoms
Symptoms of leukopenia, even if the level of white bodies becomes sharply lower, does not appear in any way.. Malfunctions can be suspected only after contact with the infection. Why it happens? Because in a healthy body leukocytes "rest" and do not show themselves. With ongoing leukopenia for a long time, any contact with a disease agent leads to the development of severe intoxication, its symptoms:
- A sharp jump in body temperature to 39 degrees and above with no signs of respiratory infection (redness of the throat, cough, increased secretion of the nasal mucosa),
- Weakness, lack of appetite,
If it is not immediately determined that the leukocytes are lowered, it will be extremely difficult for the doctor to prescribe the appropriate treatment (there are no specific symptoms). With a lightning developing infection on the background of leukopenia, septic shock often occurs - a direct threat to human life.
To establish the correct diagnosis - a prerequisite for the development of leukopenia, it is necessary to take into account not only leukocyte cells in general, but also each of their individual species. It happens that there is a shortage of only one formed element in the formula against the background of the general normal value of the aggregate white blood cells. This situation can not be ignored. A conscientious physician will refer to several types of tests before prescribing therapy. Some of them will have to be repeated several times to study the tendency towards normalization or deterioration of indicators.
Prolonged leukopenia leads to a favorable environment for the development of infectious processes, so it must be adjusted. Treatment begins with establishing the cause of the pathology.
Bone marrow affection requires intensive use of pharmaceuticals. Apply: Filgrastim, Sagramostim, Lenograstim and others. Particularly severe cases (malignant neoplasms) require intensive measures. This means: blood transfusion, chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Diseases of the internal organs, the endocrine system are treated specifically, depending on the specifically identified pathology. Infectious diseases also require a differentiated approach to therapy. You may need to use antihistamines, antibiotics, antiviral and other drugs. The physician must be informed of all medications taken, some of which may have to be canceled.
In the case of a subtle change in the blood formula caused by a deficiency of vitamins and microelements, it is enough to adjust the nutrition. But a strongly pronounced process, in which the leukocytes are lowered, already requires medication under the supervision of the attending physician. These are mainly specialized vitamin-mineral complexes, which compensate for the deficiency of vitamins of group B, and essential trace elements. These are the drugs: Leucogen, Batilol, Pentoxyl, Methyluracil, and others, which can increase the amount of white blood elements due to the effect on the bone marrow structures.
The treatment is carried out in stationary conditions under the rules of sterility, so the risk of catching the infection below.
Useful products for leukopenia
It is believed that the time to restore the level of leukocyte cells will take less when the patient receives a balanced diet. It is necessary to include in the diet:
- Berries and fruits, eat a lot of citrus,
- Enter into the diet low-calorie dairy products, their fat content is lower,
- Products that have fiber in their composition should be consumed in every meal: fresh vegetables, whole-grain cereals,
- The most voluminous should be the proportion of proteins in the diet, choose lean meats and fish, seafood,
- Barley decoction will help increase leukocyte cells in the blood.
To prepare the broth, take 1.5–2 liters of water and a glass of barley grits, boil over low heat until the liquid is reduced in volume by half, filtered. The resulting broth take a glass twice a day.
Refuse should from fried foods, convenience foods, fast food and smoked meats. Reducing the proportion of fatty foods also does not hurt. The sooner you begin to act, the faster the value of leukocyte cells will come to normal. However, given the seriousness of the conditions, against which leukocytes are lowered, there can be no talk of any course of self-treatment without going to a doctor. Be attentive to your body, take care of it.
What are the danger of reduced white blood cells?
Leukocytes are the common name for white blood cells, including neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. All these cells are responsible for identifying and destroying alien elements (antigens), protecting the body against various infections and pathological processes.
Depending on the type of antigen in the blood, the level of leukocytes of different types changes. So, with viral and bacterial infections, allergic reactions and other leukocyte blood formulas will be different. In some cases, leukopenia is the result of the activity of the infection. For example, in viral diseases neutropenia is often observed - a reduced level of neutrophils. Normally, the number of leukocytes in the blood recovers over time. However, in some cases, leukopenia is pathological.
The diagnosis is made in the event that the level of white blood cells fell below 4.0 billion cells / l. But with this indicator, the person has not yet manifested the symptoms of the disease. If the number of blood cells continues to decline, it represents a serious threat to health, because the body essentially loses its natural protection. Any contact with infectious agents can lead to illness. And if there are not enough leukocytes in the blood even to keep the infection under control, any minor illness can lead to serious complications, generalized damage and even death.
Causes of leukocyte reduction
White blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and live on average about 2 weeks. Therefore, pathologically low white blood cell levels can speak of such serious problems:
- Damage to the bone marrow, in which it simply does not produce new cells.
- Too rapid destruction of leukocytes. In this case, new cells cannot compensate for the deficiency of white blood cells.
- Various irregularities in the circulation of leukocytes.
Leukopenia in some cases can be a separate disease, but most often it speaks of a particular disease or pathological effects on the body. Analyzes show reduced white blood cells in such cases:
- Bone marrow affections, including oncological diseases, hypoplastic anemia.
- Autoimmune diseases: lupus erythematosus, thyroiditis.
- Viral infections: hepatitis, Epstein-Barr virus and others.
- Genetic pathologies (in this case, congenital leukopenia).
- The consequences of radiation exposure, and the pathology is observed both on the background of radiation sickness, and as a complication of radiation therapy.
- Consequences of chemotherapy.
- Taking certain medications: antidepressants, mercury diuretics, antihistamine drugs, cytotoxic drugs, and others. In this case, the patient is diagnosed with neutropenia.
- Sharp weight loss.
- The consequences of strict diets, which result in an organism deficiency of iron, copper, B vitamins, including folic acid.
Signs of low white blood cell count
Leukopenia is manifested depending on its degree. A slight decrease in the level of white blood cells can be asymptomatic, and too low white blood cells in the blood will lead to a significant deterioration in health.
People with leukopenia are characterized by the following symptoms:
- Increased body temperature.
- Increased sweating.
- Great weakness, loss of strength.
- General depletion of the body.
With a decrease in leukocytes, the condition of a person is aggravated. In particular, there are signs of poor immune protection:
- Ulcers on the mucous membranes of the mouth, bleeding gums.
- Enlarged tonsils.
- Enlarged spleen.
- Exacerbation of chronic diseases, in particular, on the mucous membranes, a herpetic rash may occur, respiratory tract infections (pharyngitis, tonsillitis, pneumonia) appear.
- Skin infections, fungal lesions.
- The defeat of the gastrointestinal tract. Exacerbation of gastric and duodenal ulcers may occur.
If the level of leukocytes falls critically, the body ceases to resist infections, even the simplest ARVI becomes dangerous for it. To confirm the diagnosis, a person needs to pass a detailed blood test with a leukogram.
Treatment of blood disease leukopenia
If leukopenia is a result of infections, leukocytes in the blood quickly return to normal. With this form of the disease, it is very important to strengthen the immune system - to eat well, not to overcool, to avoid contact with sick people, to refrain from visiting crowded places during periods of epidemics. This will help the body to quickly restore defense mechanisms and return to normal.
If leukopenia is caused by more serious health problems, and the level of white blood cells is significantly reduced, the patient will need special treatment. The main therapy will be to eliminate the cause of leukopenia - the treatment of the underlying disease. In addition, the following measures will be required:
- Providing a safe environment for the patient. In severe cases, patients are placed in special sterile boxes, communication with other people is limited.
- Blood transfusions (leukocyte mass).
- Appointment of a course of medications that contribute to the formation of white blood cells. For example, various drugs that improve metabolic processes.
- Detoxification treatment aimed at reducing the intoxication of the body.
- The appointment of antibacterial drugs.This is due to the fact that even opportunistic bacteria that form part of the natural microflora can be dangerous for a person with leukopenia. And the activation of such microbes as, for example, Staphylococcus aureus against the background of low leukocyte count can lead to sepsis.
Eosinophils are detected by infection with parasites, immediate-type allergic reactions, such as angioedema, neurodermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma.
Low eosinophil level (eosinopenia) is a condition in which there is a low content of leukocytes in this population, ranging from 0.2 thousand / μl or less. If there are no eosinophils in the blood, then this condition is called aneosinophilia.
The causes of low blood levels of eosinophil leukocytes are:
- acute stage of the infectious process
- tuberculosis in the running form
- pernicious anemia,
- postoperative period.
Eosinophils are lowered when the patient's condition worsens during the illness, especially if their content decreases to 0.05 thousand / μl or less.
What does it mean, what does it say, if leukocytes and eosinophils are lowered in the blood?
Reduced leukocytes in the blood, combined with a decrease in the number of eosinophils, indicate a low body resistance, which means that the immune system is on the verge of exhaustion.
Basophils are a variety of white blood cells involved in allergic reactions of both immediate and delayed type. Basophils are found in immune, autoimmune diseases, pathologies of the nervous, endocrine system. The number of basophils in basopenia does not exceed 0.01 thousand / μl.
A reduced number of leukocytes of this group (basopenia) is noted for diseases:
- hyperthyroidism, Basedow's disease,
- Cushing's syndrome, growth of a hormonally active tumor,
- during ovulation, during pregnancy,
- acute pneumonia,
A reduced level of white blood cells of this type is noted in the blood during the recovery period after a serious infectious disease, as a result of prolonged exposure to radiation in small doses.
Reduction of lymphocytes in the blood (lymphopenia) can be a natural process, such as during pregnancy, when the number of lymphocytes decreases by 25% from the norm. But usually a decrease in the number of lymphocytes is an indicator of the disease.
A decrease in the blood of this population of leukocytes in a child indicates an increased allergic predisposition of the body, as well as congenital immunodeficiency. With low lymphocytes in a child, if their number is less than 1.4 thousand / μl, but there is no change in the normal number of leukocytes, then this indicates a dysfunction of the thymus gland.
In adults, lymphopenia is the blood content of a given leukocyte population of less than 1 thousand / μL, which is below the norm, which means, as in children, severe damage to the immune system.
This deviation is observed:
- with lymph node tuberculosis,
- systemic lupus erythematosus,
- radiation sickness
- Hodgkin's disease,
- renal failure.
Lymphocytes are the leukocyte population responsible for cellular immunity, and immunosuppressants may be the cause of low levels of this group in the blood, as well as hormone therapy.
With reduced leukocytes and lymphocyte counts in the blood below the norm, the body develops an immunodeficiency state, and this means that the risk of infection with infectious diseases, including HIV infection, has increased.
Monocytes are involved in neutralizing infection through phagocytosis. With monocyte indices of 0.09 thousand / μl and less, they are said to be lowered, and the condition is called monocytopenia.
The lack of leukocytes from the group of monocytes in the blood is noted when:
- treatment with glucocorticoids,
- severe sepsis,
- anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency.
The main reason why monocytes can be lowered in the blood is the leukopenic form of leukemia - a malignant neoplastic disease of the blood caused by a violation of leukocyte maturation.
If the total leukocytes are lowered (less than 4 thousand / μl), and the monocytes are raised, then it means that the body has coped with the cause of the disease, but in an adult it sometimes means that a severe form of tuberculosis or a tumor develops.
The reason for slightly reduced leukocytes in the blood, for example, within 3.5 - 3.8 in a man, is not always a dangerous disease, sometimes this means that for a given person such a low figure is the norm.
In assessing the patient's condition, not only quantitative indicators of the shaped elements, but also their qualitative changes, as well as data from other studies are taken into account. To finally determine why leukocytes are lowered in the blood, whether it is possible to raise them, and how to do this, only a doctor can.
Sometimes white blood cells are temporarily lowered with a lack of B vitamins, ascorbic acid, copper and iron. In this case, it is possible to normalize the indicators of the analysis with the help of a correctly formulated diet.
With significant deviations of the test from the norm are treated with drugs. Drugs and treatment regimen must be prescribed by a doctor, as it is necessary to determine why a patient has leukocytes in the blood, and how to raise them, it is necessary only from the results of tests.