The immunity of the child is very different from the immunity of an adult. After the baby is born, his immune system is quite vulnerable for some time, so the crumb can be subjected to a number of infectious diseases. One of them is streptoderma. This skin disease is capable of delivering a lot of inconvenience to both the child and his parents.
What does streptoderma look like in children?
What and how to treat streptoderma in children, what are the symptoms of this disease and what should be done to prevent it? The answers to these questions are listed below.
Streptoderma in children: what is it?
Streptoderma is an infectious dermatological disease that is included in the pyoderma group and is caused by streptococci. The disease occurs mainly in newborns, preschoolers and children of primary school age. Such age limits are due to insufficient development of the body's defenses in childhood. In rare cases, the disease can affect adolescents and adults.
The presence of a number of characteristic and well-recognized signs of streptoderma in children makes it possible to detect the disease in its early stages and to initiate appropriate treatment. If the therapy was not started in a timely manner, there is a risk of complications, up to sepsis.
Streptoderma in children: causes and mechanism of development
The high incidence of streptoderma makes it one of the most common pediatric dermatological diseases. Therefore, all parents (especially moms and dads premature and weak children) are advised to know what causes streptoderma in children. This will help adults create the necessary conditions to protect the child from possible infection.
The disease is caused by the active growth of streptococci, which is caused by a decrease or insufficient development of the body's defenses. Streptococci are spherical bacteria belonging to conditionally pathogenic microflora and present in insignificant amounts on human skin, on its mucous membranes and in the intestines. Normally, they should not cause harm, since the number of these bacteria is controlled by the immune system. If the body's defenses are reduced, streptococci begin to actively proliferate and release into the human body the products of their vital activity, causing inflammatory processes.
Infection of the skin with streptococci occurs as a result of the penetration of bacteria through various microtraumas - cuts, cracks, wounds, scratches of insect bites, diaper rash, etc. Any damage to the integrity of the skin (even superficial and minor) can become an entrance gate for infection, provided that the immune system is imperfectly working .
As a result of penetration of streptococci into the skin, intraepidermal macrophages are activated. This leads to the beginning of the inflammatory process, during which a serous or serous-purulent exudate forms at the site of infection of the skin with a streptococcal infection. Over time, the exudate leaks onto the surface of the skin and dries to form dense crusts of yellow, reddish or brown color.
Among the prerequisites for the emergence of this disease is called:
- The weakening of the body's defenses caused by an unbalanced diet, inadequate use of essential vitamins and trace elements, stress and hypothermia.
- Non-compliance with personal hygiene. This applies to both inadequate and excessively frequent hand washing and bathing.
- Skin irritation caused by excessive sweating.
- The presence of problems in the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine pathologies, various chronic diseases.
How is streptoderma transmitted in children?
Most parents who are aware of the existence of this disease are usually interested in whether streptoderma is contagious in children. This question is particularly relevant for those moms and dads, whose children have been in children's groups for a long time - in nurseries, kindergartens, schools, health camps for children, etc.
Streptoderma is a contagious disease with a high level of contagiousness. Moreover, sudden outbreaks of this disease in various institutions are quite common. There are three ways of transmission of this infection:
- Contact. The causative agent of the disease is transmitted from a sick child to a healthy when the skin comes in contact (when touched, hugged).
- Contact and household. The causative agents of streptoderma are transmitted from carrier to child when playing together with infected toys, using the same dishes, clothes, towels, washcloths, etc.
- Airborne. Infection is possible if, during a conversation, coughing or sneezing, pathogenic agents precipitate along with particles of saliva in the damaged areas of the skin of a healthy child.
- Air dust. In rare cases, infection is possible when microscopic particles of dust contaminated with pathogenic bacteria hit the damaged skin.
Forms of streptoderma in children
By the nature of the lesion of the skin, this disease is represented by two forms:
- Dry streptoderma in children, it represents areas of dry, flaky skin covered with small scales. Usually accompanied by itching.
- When wet (weeping) form Diseases of the skin in children are observed education moknuti - inflamed areas, soaked with serous or sero-purulent exudate. The skin around Moss is red and sore, perhaps a local temperature increase.
According to the degree of the depth of the inflammatory process, the superficial and deep forms of the disease are distinguished:
- Surface streptoderma in children, it affects only the epidermis and does not penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin. Localization of the affected areas can be any.
- Deep shape disease affects not only the epidermis, but also able to penetrate into the germ layer of the dermis. The significant penetration depth of pathogenic agents slows the healing process. In addition to skin manifestations, signs of general intoxication of the body are possible - fever, headache, weakness, an increase in nearby lymph nodes. Usually the deep form of streptoderma is localized on the child’s buttocks, legs and arms.
Depending on the clinical manifestations of streptoderma can be represented by the acute and chronic form. In the first case we are talking about the rapid development of symptoms and relatively rapid recovery (usually up to 14-21 days). If the disease has turned into a chronic form, the symptoms are often blurred, the disease is characterized by a sluggish course with alternating periods of exacerbation and stabilization of the condition. Chronic streptoderma in children usually lasts several months (in some cases, even several years).
As for the localization of lesions, a limited form of the disease (most often on the face or scalp) and common (rashes affect large areas of the body - body, buttocks, limbs) are distinguished.
Types of streptoderma in children and their symptoms
There are the following types of this disease:
· Strep impetigo. The second name is simple streptoderma. In children, it is localized on the face (in the mouth, in the nose), in the groin, less frequently on the extremities and trunk. A distinctive feature of streptococcal impetigo is the formation of characteristic elements of rash on the skin of the child - conflict. They are small bubbles, inside of which there is a serous or purulent exudate. The skin around the phlichene reddens and swells, it becomes painful to the touch, itching occurs. As new elements of the rash appear, the individual bubbles merge into large groups. Over time, the conflicts are opened, their content flows out and dries out on the skin, forming yellowish-orange crusts. If secondary infection has not occurred, the resulting wounds and crusts dry out and separate, leaving behind pink or reddish spots that usually disappear without a trace (without scars, scars and depigmentation).
· Bullosa impetigo (or bubble streptoderma). It develops in children up to a year, which is why the disease has received another name - impetigo of newborns. The disease is easily recognized by a characteristic feature - the appearance of a bull on the skin of a baby (usually on the extremities). These elements of the rash are blistering formations resembling blistering burns. Bullae have an irregular rounded shape, their diameter reaches 1.5-2 cm. The walls are usually sluggish and thin, due to which the integrity of the bubbles can easily be broken. Inside the bull is yellowish serous or serous-purulent contents. When the bubbles burst, the exudate flows out, forming soak. As the bursting bulls dry out, dense brown crusts form, which then pass without a trace. The appearance of crusts is usually accompanied by itching. At this stage, it is necessary to provide protection against scratching, since the entry of pathogenic microorganisms can lead to secondary infection of the skin.
· Slot-like impetigo. This type of disease is also known under the following names: zaeda, angular stomatitis, streptococcal cheilitis. This type of streptoderma is localized in the mouth in children, more precisely, in the corners of the mouth. In rare cases, it may spread to nearby skin areas (nasolabial triangle, sometimes - the corners of the eyes). In the initial stages, slit impetigo may resemble herpes. The disease begins with the appearance of redness in the corner of the mouth, in the place of which the conflict soon forms, filled with serous or serous-purulent contents. The bubble usually breaks during a conversation or eating, in its place weeping erosion appears. These sores give the child severe discomfort, as they cause pain when opening the mouth. As the erosions dry in place, yellowish-orange crusts form, the appearance of which is accompanied by pruritus.
· Streptoderma nail rollers. This type of disease is also called tournamentol or superficial felon, paronychia. Children's skin around the nails often has minor injuries, burrs or scratches. When these microtraumas are infected with streptococcal infection, redness of the skin occurs, the finger section near the nail bed becomes swollen, painful and hot to the touch. Next is the formation of purulent conflict, which eventually breaks. In place of a burst bubble, a dense yellow or brown crust occurs. After its detachment, there is usually no trace left on the skin.
· Streptococcal diaper rash. This form of the disease occurs mainly in newborns and older children who are overweight. In the first case, diaper rash mainly occurs in areas where the skin touches the diaper (in the folds of the skin on the buttocks, in the groin area on the inner surface of the thigh), as well as under the knees and elbows. In older children, irritation may occur in the folds of the skin under the breast, on the abdomen, on the neck. The mechanism of disease development is as follows: streptococci get on the skin in the area of diaper rash, penetrate into microcracks and wounds and cause irritation. As a result, conflicts are formed, which then burst and crusts appear in their place. The appearance of streptococcal diaper rash is always accompanied by itching and soreness, because of which the child becomes restless, does not sleep well. The course of the disease is aggravated by the fact that sweat usually accumulates in the area of diaper rash, which contributes to further skin irritation.
· Streptococcal (vulgar) ecthyma characterized by lesions of the deeper layers of the skin mainly on the buttocks and legs. How does this type of streptoderma begin in children? The skin reddens, after which a round bladder appears on it, filled with sero-purulent or serous-hemorrhagic contents. After the integrity of the bubble is disturbed, the exudate flows out and a yellowish-brown crust forms in its place. Beneath the crust is a purulent wound. The skin around the affected area swells and gets a reddish-bluish tint. After the crust separates, a scar or depigmented skin area forms in its place. In addition to the skin symptoms, streptococcal ecthyma is manifested by general intoxication of the body - an increase in body temperature, an increase in lymph nodes, weakness and aching muscles. It must be understood that streptococcal ecthyma is one of the most dangerous types of this disease. Streptoderma of this type is relatively rare in children, since the prerequisite for its development is a very serious decrease in the body's defenses. Streptococcal ecthyma can develop on the background of diabetes mellitus and other endocrine disorders, oncological diseases, etc.
· Dry streptoderma in children. In the people, this type of disease is called simple or white lichen. It is manifested by the formation on the skin (mainly on the cheeks, in the nasolabial triangle and on the chin) rounded spots of light pink color. The diameter of the spots varies from a few millimeters to 2-3 cm, their surface is covered with whitish dry scales. Usually dry streptoderma in children is accompanied by pruritus.
Diagnosis of streptoderma in children
For the appointment of appropriate treatment requires a qualified differential diagnosis. Its importance is due to the fact that in the initial stages of streptoderma in children may have symptoms resembling other diseases - herpes, allergic reactions, oral candidiasis and lips, atopic dermatitis, eczema.
For an accurate diagnosis is necessary:
- Visit a doctor (pediatrician, dermatologist), who will conduct a visual inspection and will take anamnesis.
- Donate blood for general and biochemical analyzes.
- You may also need to take the contents of the bubbles and dried crusts for bacteriological culture on nutrient media.
- If necessary, you need to pass urine samples and feces for laboratory research.
Streptoderma in children: treatment
For treatment to be successful, an integrated approach is important. At the same time it is necessary to cope with the following tasks:
- Eliminate the causative agent of the disease.
- Remove inflammation.
- Normalize skin microflora.
- Increase the body's defenses.
When developing a treatment strategy, factors such as the child’s age, the presence of concomitant skin and systemic diseases, and general immunity should be taken into account.
Antibiotic for streptoderma in children
Antibiotics can be prescribed for oral administration as well as for intramuscular (less commonly intravenous) injections. The course of antibiotic treatment is usually prescribed for severe forms of the disease or in the presence of multiple lesions. In most cases, doctors recommend penicillin preparations. If the child is allergic to penicillin, macrolides are prescribed. The course of antibiotic treatment usually does not exceed 10-14 days.
Treatment of streptoderma in children with drugs for external use
To prevent the active reproduction of pathogenic bacteria, it is recommended to treat the affected areas of the skin with external means - aqueous and alcoholic antiseptic solutions, creams and ointments with disinfecting, anti-inflammatory and drying properties.
When streptoderma use external antiseptics such as hydrogen peroxide, Zelenka, iodine, fukortsin, a weak solution of potassium permanganate, chlorhexidine, methylene solution, furatsilina aqueous solution. The affected skin is treated 2-4 times a day with a cotton pad moistened with an external antiseptic. It is not recommended to use pure medical alcohol for processing the bull and flikten.
In addition to the use of external antiseptics, doctors recommend the use of ointment for streptoderma in children. A distinctive feature of ointments is that they provide a deeper penetration of active substances into the skin. Parents should know the names of ointments used for streptoderma in children:
· Erythromycin ointment for streptoderma in children. This tool is included in the group of macrolide antibiotics and is usually prescribed if the child is allergic to penicillin-type antibiotics. The active ingredient of the ointment is erythromycin. The tool can be prescribed in the treatment of skin manifestations of streptoderma, as well as the spread of lesions on the mucous membranes.
· Tetracycline ointment for streptoderma in children. The main active ingredient is tetracycline hydrochloride. Ointment is usually not prescribed to children younger than 10-11 years. The course of treatment does not exceed 2-3 weeks.
· Zinc ointment for streptoderma in children. The main active ingredient of the ointment is zinc oxide. This remedy for external use has pronounced disinfecting and drying properties. One of the main advantages of the tool is the absence of contraindications.
· Syntomycin ointment for streptoderma in children. The active ingredient of the drug is synthomycin (broad-spectrum antibiotic). Because of the large list of contraindications and possible side effects, children are very rarely prescribed, and only for the treatment of severe forms of streptoderma.
You can use La Cree Cream for sensitive skin to speed healing of the affected areas. The cream has a non-hormonal composition, so it can be used for babies from the first days of birth. The composition includes natural ingredients that help reduce inflammation, having an antimicrobial, antipruritic and healing effect.
Diet for streptoderma in children
In drawing up the menu for a child with streptoderma, the main task is to increase the body's defenses. To improve the immune system, the use of fresh berries and fruits, rich in vitamins C, E and antioxidants, is recommended. These can be raspberries, cranberries, plums, red grapes, apples, blueberries, oranges, lemon, kiwi, etc. At the same time, remember that some of them can cause allergic reactions, so consult your doctor first.
Vegetables rich in fiber and antioxidants (onions, garlic, eggplants, broccoli, turnips, paprika, pumpkin) help speed recovery. White cabbage deserves special attention. This vegetable perfectly cleans the intestines, removing from it the accumulated slags and toxins, which contributes to the speedy cleansing of the skin.
The use of whole-grain products accelerates the removal of toxins from the body, increases its defenses and has a positive effect on the condition of the skin. Children with streptoderma are recommended to use whole-grain cereals, whole-grain bread with bran.
It is important to limit the consumption of simple carbohydrates and to focus on protein foods. It is advisable to abandon baking flour of the highest grade, chocolate and other sweets (except fruit and honey - in the absence of allergy to them), margarine and trans fats, spicy and fatty sauces, smoked, pickled and salty dishes. Instead, it is recommended to feed the child with boiled, stewed or baked lean meat, fish, eggs, dairy and dairy products.
A special role is given to the drinking regime. The child should consume unsweetened tea, decoctions of herbs, fruit drinks, juices without preservatives, clean drinking or mineral water (without gas).
How long does streptoderma treatment in children last?
Depending on the type of illness, therapy may take a different time. Mild forms of the disease (for example, lichen edema) are better treated, so less time is needed to combat them. In contrast to this, the question “How to quickly cure streptoderma in a child?” In the presence of ecthyma in a baby is simply meaningless, since it is impossible to quickly get rid of this form of the disease.
Are complications and recurrences of streptoderma infection in children possible?
In case of delayed initiation of therapy or the use of inappropriate treatments, a number of complications of streptoderma in children may occur. The infection can penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin, causing an actima, or be carried with the bloodstream throughout the body, which can lead to sepsis. The development of guttate psoriasis is also possible.
Prevention of streptoderma in children
To protect a child from possible infection, it is important to observe the following preventive measures:
- Maintain the body's defenses, increase its resistance to pathogenic agents.
- In due time to process skin microtraumas.
- Avoid contact with carriers of the disease.
- Teach your child to use individual dishes, a towel.
- Follow the baby's diet.
- Treat existing diseases and prevent them from becoming chronic.
- Teach your child to follow the rules of personal hygiene. For hand washing and daily hygiene, you can use La Cree Cleansing Gel. This tool is suitable for use from the first days of a baby’s life, as it does not contain fragrances and dyes and has a non-hormonal composition.
Remember: increasing the body's defenses is the key to protecting your child from infection of the skin with streptococci and the development of streptoderma. The better the immunity of the baby will work, the less chances he has to contract the disease.
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Why a disease occurs and how it is transmitted
According to the International Classification of Diseases 10 revision (ICD-10) streptoderma assigned code - L08. This section includes pyoderma with the code L08.1 and the specified infectious lesions - L08.8.
The cause of streptoderma in children is the ingestion and management of the pathogenic microorganism in this environment - streptococcus.
Such can to gain a foothold on the skin by hitting there from the following sources:
- household items: from toys, towels, dishes, etc.,
- from a sick person or from a healthy person who is a carrier of the infection,
- from sick with pathologies such as: sore throat, pharyngitis, scarlet fever, tracheobronchitis.
The disease is epidemic in nature.. Children attending kindergartens, schools, sections can become ill by catching an infection from another child. The duration of the incubation period is from 2 to 10 days.
Based on the source of transmission of infection, isolated ways of transmission of the disease:
- contact: during direct contact of the skin of a sick person with the healthy epidermis (during games, kissing, etc.),
- contact and household: during the transfer from the patient to a healthy person of any object - toys, towels, dishes, etc.,
- airborne: during sneezing or coughing, if contaminated saliva gets on the damaged skin of a healthy person.
Causes of relapse
In the normal state of the immune system (both local and general), the absence of violation of the integrity of the epidermis, streptococcal infection has no chance of survival in the body, it is simply suppressed by them.
Recurrences, as well as the progressive course of the disease, occur in the following cases:
- in violation of immunological reactivity, which is observed in premature babies, in children with anemia, helminthiasis, hypotrophy,
- with the concomitant development of a different infectious pathology,
- with the concomitant development of chronic skin disease (scabies, lice, etc.),
- with allergic symptoms, atopic dermatitis,
- with the concomitant development of otitis media, rhinitis (due to exudate excretion from the nose, which irritates the skin).
The development of the disease is also affected by external factors: high or low temperature (burn, frostbite of the skin through which streptococci can enter the body).
It is unequivocally difficult to say how the streptoderma of this form begins. In some children, the initial stage of the development of pathology is a slight reddening of the skin, while others immediately develop characteristic bubbles.
At the beginning of the bubbles localized transparent exudate, which eventually turns into pus with blood. Bubbles can blend into one large spot. To the question Whether streptoderma is contagious in children, you can say with precision - yes. The contents of the elements that burst, has a large amount of streptococci, which, if they hit the skin of a healthy person, cause him streptoderma. After the bubbles have dried up, crusts remain in their place, and after the latter has dried, blue spots appear.
Bullous and slit impetigo
Streptoderma in children appears in the form of large blisters, having a size larger than the elements for streptococcal impetigo. After the bubbles burst, a crust forms in their place, and after it dries out - erosion with progressive development.
Slit-like on the face of a child - in the form of zayad arising in the corners of the mouth. An element of oblong shape quickly bursts, and a crack appears in its place.
There is an inflammatory process around the nails, and the nail plate can completely peel off. The disease develops after a finger injury or with chronic burrs. The general condition may deteriorate.
Symptoms of streptoderma in children occur in skin folds. The rash quickly merges into one large spot, forming a bright red erosion of weeping nature. With a long course of the disease, a fungal or staphylococcal infection may join with the appearance of other characteristic symptoms.
Diagnosis of the disease and features of therapy
Diagnosis and treatment of streptoderma on the hands, streptoderma on the legs and in other areas of the body are engaged in a dermatologist. He is already in appearance rash will be able to determine the form of the disease and its stage.
To confirm the diagnosis, prescribe additional diagnostic measures:
- microscopy of epidermis scraping (on the fungus),
- bacteriological seeding of exudate,
- study of the skin under the lamp Wood,
- RPR test and tuberculin test (to exclude syphilitic ulcers and skin tuberculosis).
Differential analysis of streptoderma on the head of a child and in other areas of the body is carried out with such skin pathologies as herpes simplex, chickenpox, pyoderma, pemphigus, eczema candidiasis.
How to cure streptoderma, decides after examining the patient specialist. Streptoderma in children must begin to be treated as early as possible - this will avoid negative consequences. Treatment while being complex.
First of all it is necessary to observe personal hygiene.. Even if the mother adheres to all other prescription of the attending physician, uses the prescribed drugs, but does not observe hygiene, the chances of a quick recovery are reduced.
When streptoderma is important to observe the following recommendations:
- in the first 3-4 days after the onset of bubbles it is forbidden to conduct water procedures (water is a conduit of infection),
- those areas of the skin where there are no pathological elements are wiped with a cotton swab dipped in warm water or in a decoction of medicinal herbs (chamomile, train),
- need to avoid combing bubbles,
- the child should have individual means of use: a towel, dishes that are carefully treated after use,
- plastic toys are washed every day, and soft toys are cleaned on the far shelf,
- bedding is changed daily or ironed.
If there is any, even minor damage to the skin, it is treated with an antiseptic solution three times a day.
What is the treatment of streptoderma in children, which drugs are prescribed and manipulated? The treatment can be carried out at home, but only in accordance with the prescription of the attending physician.
Bubbles gently opened with an injection needle, pre-treated with an antiseptic. Next, the surface is treated with a solution of aniline dyes, impose a dry antiseptic dressing.
To remove crusts, salicylic petrolatum is used, which is pre-lubricated with crusts, leaving for 2-3 hours. Also in the treatment of streptoderma in children at home, you can use the following ointment.
|Drug name, release form||Dosage, method of application||Contraindications||Side effects||Average price, rub.|
|Streptocid, ointment||To put with a thin layer, from above fixing a bandage. The frequency of use is determined by the doctor.||Hypersensitivity, acute porphyria, acute renal pathology, infants, pregnancy, lactation||Allergic reactions||60-80|
|TETRACYCLINE, ointment||Apply a thin layer under the dressing 2 times a day||Hypersensitivity, children under 11 years||Allergic reactions||20-30|
|GENTAKSAN, ointment||Apply a thin layer on problem areas 2 times a day, fixing it on top with a tight bandage||Hypersensitivity||Itching syndrome, dermatitis, urticaria||1300|
|Baneotsin, ointment||Baneocin for streptoderma in children is applied twice a day, top-fixing with a bandage||Hypersensitivity, severe skin damage||Urticaria, increased dry skin||300|
|BAKTROBAN, ointment||Apply with a cotton swab 2-3 times a day, smearing on the skin of the problem, secure with a bandage on top||Hypersensitivity||Urticaria, erythema, hyperemia||400|
- Streptocidal ointment has a pronounced antimicrobial effect, contributes to the suppression of infection. Only the lack of the drug is the addiction of pathogenic microorganisms to substances that are part ofthat becomes the cause for the inefficiency of the ointment.
- Tetracycline ointment has an antiseptic effect, contributing to the rapid elimination of pathogens. The preparation contains an antibacterial substance from the tetracycline group - tetracycline hydrochloride.
- Ointment Gentaxan has a powerful antimicrobial effect due to the substance sulphate of gentamicin. Despite the high efficacy of the drug, ointment often causes side effects in the form of a skin allergic reaction.
- Baneocin ointment also applies to antibacterial drugs used in the treatment of gram-positive pathogens. Prescribe the drug to both children and adults.
- Ointment Baktroban includes in its structure the antibacterial component mupirocin. The drug helps to stop the growth and livelihoods of pathogens and has a bactericidal effect. The drug is used both in monotherapy and in complex treatment of streptoderma.
- Ointment from streptoderma prescribed by the attending physician, based on the form of the disease. If local therapy does not help get rid of the pathology, use drugs in the form of tablets.
To disinfect the surface of the skin, where the rash is localized, you can use any antiseptic solution.
|Drug name, release form||Dosage, method of application||Contraindications||Side effects||Average price, rub.|
|BRILLIANT GREEN, liquid||Treat affected areas 2-3 times a day||Hypersensitivity, moist skin wounds, bleeding||Allergic reaction on the skin||36|
|HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, liquid||Treat affected areas several times a day with a swab||Hypersensitivity||Allergic reaction on the skin||6|
|BORN ALCOHOL, liquid||Treat affected areas 2 times a day||Hypersensitivity||Allergic reaction on the skin||16|
- Brilliant green solution has an antiseptic effect and is used not only for streptoderma, but also for many other skin diseases. Adverse symptoms are rarely that allows you to use the drug in the treatment of pathology in young children.
- Hydrogen peroxide is a tool that is used to disinfect damaged skin areas (which is necessary for streptoderma), as well as to stop minor bleeding and in dental practice. Due to the natural composition of the drug, there are practically no side effects.
- Boric alcohol has an antiseptic effect and rarely causes irritation. skin cover. It is used not only for streptoderma, but also for other skin pathologies in children (for example, diaper rash).
Systemic antibiotic therapy
In severe cases, antibiotics are prescribed. It can be penicillins - drugs that are most effective in the treatment. Macrolides are considered to be equally effective.
The dosage, duration of therapy, the type of antibiotic is determined by the attending physician. It is forbidden to self-medicate with antibiotics, they often cause side symptoms.
|Drug name, release form||Dosage, method of application||Contraindications||Side effects||Average price, rub.|
|AMOKSILAV tablets||Children under 2 years old - 2.5 mg, after 2 years - 5 mg one time||Diseases of the heart, blood, respiratory system, liver, kidneys, periods of pregnancy and lactation, hypersensitivity to the components||Nausea-vomiting syndrome, flatulence, allergic reactions, dyspepsia, convulsions||300-400|
|ERYTROMYCIN, tablets||20-40 mg per 1 kg of weight, 3 times a day||Similar||Similar||18-102|
|Flemoxin, tablets||30-60 mg per 1 kg of weight, 2-3 times a day||Similar||Similar||250|
- Amoxiclav belongs to the penicillin group and rarely causes adverse symptoms due to its good tolerance by the body. If adults are prescribed tablets with this name, then for children it is advisable to use a suspension.
- Erythromycin is a macrolide agent and is better tolerated by the body than penicillins. The action of the drug is identical to penicillins. Prolonged use of Erythromycin can cause pathogen resistance. to its substances.
- Flemoxin belongs to the group of semi-synthetic ampicillins. The advantage of the drug is fairly rapid absorption. The drug belongs to the combined means and is used not only for skin diseases, but also for diseases of the urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system (including in children).
How to quickly cure streptoderma at home, are there any folk remedies that are allowed for use by both adults and children?
- Chamomile, oak bark (an infusion of those has a drying effect): pour 1 tbsp. l raw materials 200 ml of boiling water, insist for an hour, strain, make a compress on the affected area 2 times a day,
- elder bark (decoction of bark helps soften the crust): 1 tbsp. l raw materials pour 200 ml of milk, boil for 15 minutes, cool, make lotions on the affected area three times a day,
- grated garlic, ground pepper (to eliminate weeping plaques): mix the ingredients in an equal volume, put on a gauze cut, then - on the affected area, hold for 15 minutes (do a compress twice a day).
Increase the protective function of the body, thereby accelerating recovery, by using the infusion of bark and leaves of hazel: 1 tbsp. l raw materials pour 200 ml of boiling water, insist for an hour, strain, take orally before meals for 1-2 tbsp. l
How to make a string for bathing a newborn - read here. What should be the temperature of the water for swimming - here.
Differential analysis and duration of treatment
Before you determine how to treat streptoderma, the doctor must make the correct diagnosis. External manifestations of the disease can be confused with other skin pathologies.. About the types of rash in children, read this publication.
For example, a herpetic rash is present along with pain syndrome, whereas it is not present in streptoderma. Chickenpox is characterized by the simultaneous presence of fresh pimples and already dried blisters.
Streptoderma does not occur with catarrhal symptoms: cough and runny nose are absent. At the initial stage of the formation of bubbles, they have a transparent content, whereas for other skin diseases it may immediately be cloudy.
Streptococcal ulcers differ from herpes in that they quickly open.forming cracks after themselves. After opening the herpes element cracks do not remain.
Accurately determine the disease can be based on the results of diagnostic activities.
The duration of treatment of streptoderma in children on the face and in other areas of the body is affected by the following factors:
- the age of the sick person (children recover faster due to a strong immune system than adults),
- the severity of the disease,
- presence of concomitant pathologies.
Features of treatment in infants
In the treatment of newborns it is important to comply with all the requirements of a doctor. There is no need to interrupt therapy, even if positive changes in the general condition are visible.
In the presence of elevated temperature, infants are prescribed bed rest, taking appropriate medications (antipyretic: Nurofen or others). Water procedures for this period are contraindicated.
It is necessary to keep the baby's hands clean and nails to cut (learn how to properly cut the nails of a newborn in a separate article). This is necessary because even if the child touches the rash, the risk of secondary infection will be minimized.
The living room, where the newborn is constantly located, is aired daily and wet cleaning is carried out. If the baby is breastfed, the nursing mom should follow a healthy diet. Artificial artists are transferred to hypoallergenic mixtures. How to choose the mixture, the criteria for doing this is described in this review.
Features of the disease in adults and during pregnancy
The course of streptococcal infection in adults is easier than in babies. Complications are rare.
If you ignore the therapy prescribed by your doctor, the rash can spread to large areas of the body.
Treatment of the disease in adults is no different from that carried out in relation to children. The exception is the period of pregnancy in which many drugs are prohibited for use. Systemic therapy is rare. Most often use local drugs that are not harmful to the fetus.
Streptoderma can be accompanied by complications, especially in case of untimely and inadequate treatment. Among those:
- chronic inflammation,
- rough scars that require cosmetic procedures,
- development of microbial eczema,
- fungal infections that require different specific therapies,
- dermal atrophy.
To avoid the occurrence of complications, it is recommended to consult a dermatologist at the first alarming symptoms.
How to treat streptoderma in a child on the face or in another area, found out.
It is also necessary to take care of the prevention of the disease, how to deal with it and its negative consequences.
Preventive measures include:
- timely treatment of wounds on the skin with the help of appropriate drugs,
- avoiding scratching of the skin during the development of a skin disease, insect bite, other injuries,
- personal hygiene (very important),
- maintaining a healthy lifestyle
- observance of proper nutrition
- avoid contact with sick people.
Streptoderma is not a dangerous disease, but it is impossible to miss the first symptoms. Immediately conduct the necessary treatment. If therapy is started in time and carried out correctly, one can hope for a full recovery and no relapse.
What is streptoderma in children
An extensive group of skin infectious diseases caused by different variants of streptococcus has one name - streptoderma or streptococcal dermatitis. The pathology is characterized by numerous eruptions in the form of bubbles ranging in size from several millimeters to ten centimeters. Children are more often ill, which is connected with their close communication in preschool and school institutions and the high contagiousness (contagiousness) of the disease itself.
Streptococcal infection has different manifestations, causing multiple diseases of bacterial etiology. The causative agent of streptoderma is a bacterium of the genus Streptococcus, having an oval or spherical shape with a diameter of less than 2 microns. The main ways of transmitting streptococcus:
- Contact and household. Infection occurs through the use of personal care products and other items used in everyday life (combs, underwear, clothing, toys, dishes, towels).
- Airborne. The bacterium Streptococcus can live for a long time in salivary fluid, sweat drops, nasal mucus. When a biological fluid contaminated on the skin of a healthy person gets infected.
- Transplacental. Streptococci have a high penetrating ability, so they easily pass through the placenta from an infected mother to the fetus.
The main cause of streptoderma is damage to the skin and insemination of pathogenic microorganisms. Streptococcus in small quantities constantly live on human skin, in the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract. With a decrease in the protective functions of the body, they begin to actively multiply, causing skin pathology. Immunity falls for many reasons:
- worm infestation,
- chronic skin diseases (allergic dermatitis, pediculosis, scabies),
- diseases of ENT organs (otitis, rhinitis),
- hypothermia or overheating of the body,
- inadequate personal hygiene or poor infant care.
Any infectious lesion begins with an incubation period. Streptoderma in children is no exception. A kid can be a passive carrier of bacteria for a long time, infecting others. When the pathological process starts, it takes from 2 to 10 days, during which there are no manifestations of the disease. Depending on the depth of infection of the dermis, doctors distinguish three stages of streptodermia:
- Buleznaya (bubbly). There is a defeat of the surface layers of the epidermis with the formation of small areas of inflamed skin. First there is streptoderma on the face of a child in the form of small bubbles, which are filled with purulent contents in a day. Then ulcers appear on other parts of the body. The site of dissection is covered with a scab (yellowish crust). If it touches, it moves and exposes the inflamed surface of the skin. Over time, the rash comes together and looks like scales.
- Nebulous. It is characterized by lesions of the deeper layers of the skin. Streptococcal ecthyma (large blisters and ulcers) develops on the body. The condition of the baby at this stage is from medium heavy to heavy. After rejection of the yellow-green crusts on the skin (mainly on the limbs) there are deep irregularities.
- Chronic. It develops when the pathological process is started or the wrong treatment is chosen. The stage is due to the episodic appearance of purulent, weeping eruptions, which, after opening, become covered with a scaly yellow crust. After recovery, the skin in these areas remains pigmented.
Signs of streptoderma in children
The manifestations of streptodermia vary depending on the type of disease caused by a bacterium of the genus Streptococcus. There are common symptoms of the disease, which are observed in children:
- skin pigmentation at the site of inflammation,
- pruritus, burning,
- headache, muscle, joint pain,
- lack of appetite,
- lethargy, malaise,
- lymph node inflammation
The disease is also called angulitis or angular stomatitis. When slit-like impetigo, zaeda is located in one or two corners of the mouth, near the outer edge of the palpebral fissure and the wings of the nose. Initially, in the corners of the eye, mouth or nasal cavity bubbles form, which open, exposing the slit-like cracks. Over time, they heal, and in their place there are yellow crusts. Patients with a slit-like impetigo are disturbed by itching, pain in the foci of inflammation during eating, salivation. If the baby has carious teeth, a runny nose, the disease lasts a long time - more than a month.
During the disease, the skin becomes covered with round-shaped pustules that peel. The foci of inflammation vary in size, reaching 10 cm in diameter. Expanding, they merge, forming different shapes. Dry streptoderma in children often appears on the face in the area of the mouth, nose, lower jaw. Damage to the ears and cheeks is possible. You may receive dry streptoderma on the child's priest, on the back, neck and limbs. Small patients complain of moderate itching, but mostly the rash develops without other symptoms.
Acute suppuration of the fingers or toes is called felon. In the case of superficial forms of the disease, edema, redness and moderate pain in the area of the lesion are observed. Over time, the pain intensifies, becomes arching, jerking. A purulent focus is formed on the fingers, accompanied by headache, fatigue, weakness, fever.
Okolonogtevogo felon develops in the area of the free edge of the nail. Since the abscess in this area is pinned down by a dense nail plate, then the disease is characterized by severe pain and a significant increase in temperature (up to 39 ° C). If the localization of felon is the area of the nail phalanx, the skin in this place reddens, then a bubble is formed, filled with bloody liquid, which radiates through the skin.
Streptococcal diaper rash
The main feature of this form of streptoderma is a secondary skin lesion on the background of diaper rash. Most often, the disease in children occurs in the groin, folds, armpits and ear region. Flicentes merge into eroded surfaces. Weeping lesions have scalloped borders, bright pink color and a rim around the edge. Around the inflammation are separate elements in the form of crusts, pustules, vesicles, at different stages of development. When painful erosions and cracks occur in the skin folds of a child, his overall health is disrupted due to discomfort.
Pathology refers to deep streptoderma. As a rule, vulgar ecthyma develops in frequently ill children against a background of reduced immunity. Elements of streptoderma arise on the lower back, thighs, buttocks, legs, less often - on the body and upper limbs. First, a pustule or conflict is formed at the site of infection. Serous fluid, which is filled with a bubble, dries quickly, forming a soft yellow-brown crust. Under it is a painful ulcer with a dirty gray bottom. In place of the healed bladder after 2-4 weeks, a pigmented scar appears.
The inflammatory process caused by streptococci leads to edema of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity.Burgundy spots appear in the mouth, the child complains of bleeding. If stomatitis is severe, then ulcers and blisters appear on the mucous membranes. In this case, the general condition of the child worsens, the body temperature rises. Increased activity of streptococcus with weak immunity can lead to oral sepsis, which is characterized by severe intoxication of the whole body and high mortality.
Mainly for the treatment of skin infections using drugs of external action. If the disease is acute or local therapy does not give the desired effect, then systemic drugs are prescribed:
- Antibiotic for streptoderma in children. Antibacterial drugs of the penicillin series are prescribed, from the group of cephalosporins or macrolides in the form of tablets or suspensions (Amoxiclav, Amoxicillin, Flemoxin, Cefazolin, Sumamed). The course of treatment is 7-10 days.
- Vitamins of group B, A, P, C. Especially important for improving immunity in a slowly current pathology. Accepted during the entire course of treatment.
- Antihistamines. Assigned to children in pill form or intramuscularly with severe itching. Dose and duration of treatment are selected individually. Effective preparations for children: Suprastin, Tavegil, Cetirizine.
Topical treatment for children is safer, since many external creams and ointments are not absorbed into the general circulation and do not harm the immature body. Therapy includes the use of the following groups of drugs:
- Antiseptics. Apply to the affected skin 2-4 times a day. After the antiseptic has dried, ointments, gels, creams are applied. Children are prescribed hydrogen peroxide 1%, brilliant green 2% (brilliant green), boric acid, salicylic alcohol 2%, Fucorcin, Stomatoidin.
- Antibacterial ointment. Apply to the cleaned area of inflammation 2-3 times a day for 7-14 days. Popular ointments for streptoderma: Erythromycin, Levomekol, Baneotsin, Resorcin.
How is streptoderma treated in infants
In newborns, streptococcal skin lesion is formed very often, because the crumbs' immunity is still very weak. The disease develops easily due to an insect bite, a small cut or abrasion. Streptodermia is dangerous for infants, so parents must strictly follow all the recommendations of the doctor for the speedy recovery of the crumbs. Basic rules for caring for an infant during the period of illness:
- all hygiene procedures consist in wiping the body with infusion of a train,
- You can not give his baby toys, because they can be carriers of the infection,
- skin treatment with hydrogen peroxide or brilliant green,
- if the doctor prescribed antibacterial ointments (Levomekol, Baneotsin), then the course of treatment, the dosage and the prescribed drug for the same can not be changed, so as not to provoke side effects.
What is Streptoderma?
The disease is an infectious etiology, the cause of which are hemolytic streptococci of group A.
It is noted that this disease often affects children (kindergartens and schools).
If the child is in a team during the illness, it is possible that someone who has been in contact with the carrier is infected.
How does the disease occur?
The group of streptococci refers to parasites of conditionally pathogenic flora. Normal in healthy children and adults live on the skin. But when you change the protective functions of the body (reduced immunity, extensive damage, seeding a large number of pathogenic microflora wounds), the occurrence of this disease is inevitable.
The infection enters damaged skin (wounds, abrasions, scratches, injuries) and multiplies further throughout the body. Over time, you can detect the appearance of purulent inflammation on the skin of the child.
One of the most important causes of Streptoderma in children are:
Susceptibility to the disease increases under certain conditions:
- The weakened immune system of the child (in childhood is not yet perfect and not able to perform a full function - to protect the body from pathogenic microorganisms entering into it),
- Diseases already present in (chronic or acute),
- Not hygiene,
- Chronic fatigue, stress.
Clinic and symptoms.
The clinic of this disease in children is much harder than in adults.
- The time from contact with the pathogen to the onset of clinical symptoms averages up to ten days. Further to the forefront will be such symptoms as affected skin.
- On examination of the skin of the child, it is possible to notice the appearance of single lesions with inflammation. They resemble the appearance of bubbles, around which there is a clear rim. The size in diameter of bubbles is up to 3 mm (more severe cases more than 3 mm). Purulent - serous content fills blisters.
- At the beginning of the development of the disease, the formed primary elements are filled with a clear liquid, followed by purulent. After a day, the bubbles burst (or faster, if the child begins to comb them), in their place you can see colored spots in blue and red.
All symptoms may manifest as skin lesions. They are localized on the skin of the face, limbs, back or lower torso.
On the face, the disease develops much more often, and this is explained by the fact that in children this place is more prone to injury (as it does not close by anything).
The child can even bring the pathogen to the skin of the face even with a normal hand touch. It is not excluded that the patient Streptoderma can involuntarily comb or crush the blisters, the contents of which smears over the skin surface and creates conditions for the further spread of the infection.
In addition to the face, the scalp is often affected. Streptoderma in children in this place also appears bubbles containing pus. The location of the lesion has uneven and fuzzy contours. After the contents have opened, crusts form. Under it begins to form erosion. The child experiences severe itching and combing wounds.
Thus, it creates conditions for extensive seeding of the skin with streptococcus.
How Streptoderma is classified.
Depending on the severity of the disease produce:
- strep impetigo (the most common and severe form: appears on different parts of the body. Bubbles, crusts form. After they have disappeared, pigmentation remains),
- bulla impetigo (accompanied by a high temperature rise to forty degrees)
- common lichen (it is characterized by the appearance of round spots, which eventually begin to peel off. The edges of the spots are indistinct),
- impetigo slit (one of the most easily occurring forms of this disease. It can be seen in the corners of the mouth, eyes, nose),
- tournament (when okolonogtevye sites are affected),
- ecthyma (diabetes mellitus is a concomitant disease in 90% of cases. The region of the lower extremities and buttocks is affected. Not only the skin surface itself, but also its deeper layers are affected),
- in neonates, another group is distinguished: diaper rash (associated with contact dermatitis).
Depending on the state of the child, the following degrees are distinguished:
How to diagnose this disease?
If the above symptoms appear, the first step is to contact your doctor. Consultation with a pediatrician and a dermatologist.
Streptoderma diagnosed on the history of the disease, clinical examination, as well as, make a laboratory study on the detection of streptococcus hemolytic group A.
Collecting the history you need to know 3 basic answers to the questions:
- Was there contact with the carrier?
- Have there been any wounds on your body lately?
- How often does a child get sick?
On examination, they emphasize the presence of yellow crusts in the place where there were bubbles. When diagnosing a huge role is given to laboratory research:
- scraping the area where the items are located.
- BAC study (bacteriological) to identify the pathogen characteristic of this infection (in order to prescribe a full treatment).
The goal of treatment is to prevent the pathogen from spreading further and stop the inflammation and itching, as well as the destruction of pathogenic microflora.
Home treatment should be carried out in stages:
- The procedure for piercing bubbles should be performed under sterile conditions. Before this manipulation, treat the puncture site with green.
- Next, use drugs that have a drying effect on skin wounds.
- After a puncture, the damaged area of the skin is closed to prevent streptococcus from entering the body again and re-causing the disease. Avoid contact with water.
It is necessary to strictly adhere to the following rules:
- If the disease is in the acute period, the child can neither be washed nor wiped with a towel (since the affected places can be damaged and the infection can be spread further through the body).
- If children are concerned about itching, you need to carefully monitor that they do not scratch the place of defeat. If necessary, antihistamine drugs.
- For the entire period of treatment, the patient should have his own things for hygiene, as well as bed linen. When they will be replaced, it is necessary to handle things des. solutions.
Attention! While there is a treatment of soft toys, it is forbidden to give!
Also, to remove the inflammation and itching, traditional medicine recommends wiping the skin with a decoction of chamomile or calendula. The above rules are the maximum you can give to your child.
Remember: if there is a suspicion of a disease such as Streptoderma, the child must be brought to a pediatrician or dermatologist for consultation.
Drug treatment at home.
- First of all, it is assigned a nutritious diet rich in vitamins. Sanitation of foci of infection is being carried out, both for parents and children.
- Antibacterial drugs from the group of penicillins and macrolides are prescribed.
- In severe cases of the disease, hormone medications are prescribed (for example, Triderm). The use of these drugs should be limited to a week.
- Antiseptics are used (for example, one percent hydrogen peroxide or salicylic acid).
- If your child is very small, you need to use Fukortsin.
- In case of a serious condition of the child, systemic treatment with antibacterial drugs (for example, Amoxiclav, Ceftriaxone, etc.) is indicated.
- Chemotherapy is prescribed by treating the affected area with a quartz lamp. When the child is completely healthy, it is recommended to begin with the hardening procedure.
The duration of treatment itself is determined by the condition of the child, the severity of the disease and its form. If the therapy is timely and adequate, then recovery occurs after two weeks.
If help is provided to children later, improvements can only be noticeable in the fourth week.
How to handle affected areas?
With the help of a cotton swab dipped in an antiseptic, walk around the affected area. It is necessary to go ten centimeters beyond the place of damage. Take time to dry. After applying ointment.
The procedure is carried out four times a day. Wound bandage does not close.
The most favorable effect on the skin have zinc preparations (ointment or mash).
What is the danger of this disease?
- The most dangerous and life-threatening complication that can be - sepsis.
In connection with the development of infective endocarditis, the patient’s death or infectious-toxic shock, brain edema occurs. This condition requires emergency medical care.
If a child has a decrease in blood pressure to 80/60 mm Hg. , hemorrhages appear on the body (blood under the skin), then it is necessary to call for help.
- Scarlet fever in children and tonsillitis of streptococcal etiology are second.
Acute glomerulonephritis is not the last place in the complication of Streptoderma. Requires emergency medical care.
- Third place, but insignificant is rheumatism (affects not only the joints, but also various organs and body systems).
The first step is to follow the rules of personal hygiene. Monitor the health of your child: injuries, scratches, abrasions, treat with antiseptics. It is necessary to increase the body's defenses: walks, sports, good nutrition, healthy sleep.
Children suffering from Streptoderma are quarantined for up to ten days (in more severe cases, the period may be increased by two or three times).
Health is the most expensive than parents can provide for their child. It is necessary from an early age to teach him the rules of hygiene, as well as measures of caution. After all, one random scratch can turn the life of one family into a nightmare.