Causes, treatment and symptoms of beriberi in men, women and children

Avitaminosis - A disease resulting from prolonged malnutrition, in which there are no any vitamins.

Avitaminosis
ICD-10E50-E56
ICD-9264 264 - 269 269
ICD-9-KM269.1 and 269.2
MeshD001361

Often meets polyavitaminosis: simultaneous deficiency of several vitamins.

The most studied and important vitamins for humans and animals are vitamins A, D, E, K, C, B1, B2, PP, B12.

Depend on the vitamin that the body lacks. Most often manifested in dizziness, headaches and nausea.

  • Violation of intake of vitamins from food with improper, inadequate or poor-quality nutrition.
  • Disturbance of digestion processes (dysbacteriosis) or disruption of the gastrointestinal tract - organs associated directly with digestion.
  • Receipt of antivitamins, such as drugs, syncumar, dicumarol, used in the treatment of increased blood clotting.
  • scurvy - in the absence of vitamin C
  • night blindness - in the absence of vitamin A
  • beriberi - in the absence of vitamin B1
  • rickets - in the absence of vitamin D
  • pellagra - in the absence of vitamin PP

There are also exogenous and endogenous avitaminosis.

Exogenous or alimentary vitamin deficiency is a consequence of the absence or deficiency of vitamins in the diet, as well as an unfavorable ratio of nutrients in the diet.

Endogenous vitamin deficiency occurs when, with an insufficient amount of vitamins, the latter cannot be absorbed by the body due to diseases of the digestive system, lesions of the reticulo-endothelial apparatus.

1. Alimentary (depends on the lack of provitamins or vitamins in the diet.

2. Resorption (associated with the difficulty of absorption of provitamins and vitamins in the intestine).

3.Dissimulation (due to excessive destruction of vitamins in the body).

4. Ahresticheskaya (occurs when poor absorption of vitamins by cells and tissues).

What is beriberi - the causes of

Vitamin deficiency - a disease or group of diseases, the consequence of which is a deficiency of vitamins and minerals in the human body. The reasons for the lack of nutrients consider:

  • unbalanced diet, including diet, starvation, fasting days,
  • alcohol and tobacco,
  • stress,
  • medication,
  • bowel disorder and disorder,
  • pregnancy and lactation,
  • childhood.

Symptoms and signs - how does beriberi manifest

Symptoms of the pathological condition with a shortage of mineral substances are different and depend on which vitamin is lost by the body:

  1. Avitaminosis A is manifested by rashes, dryness and peeling of the skin on the face, hair and nails become brittle, and twilight vision deteriorates.
  2. Avitaminosis B (B1, B3, B6, B12) is characterized by excessive tearfulness, irritability, drowsiness and weakness. There is a weight loss, a violation of the gastrointestinal tract, numbness, tinnitus.
  3. Avitaminosis D leads to muscle pain and cramps, increases the risk of fractures and injuries.
  4. Avitaminosis C is manifested not only in a decrease in the immunity and elasticity of the skin. Vitamin deficiency can lead to the development of scurvy - a disease that is characterized by the appearance of hemorrhages due to the fragility of the vessel walls.

One of the first, especially in the offseason, from the hands on avitaminosis is the surface of the hands. Then the body's reaction goes to the skin of the face, body, lips.

Avitaminosis on the hands can manifest dry skin, cracks - this indicates a lack of vitamin A. Pigment spots, discoloration and appearance - lack of B12. Itching, brittleness of the nail plate - vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin deficiency on the fingers is manifested by desquamation from the palm of the hand, this indicates a lack of vitamins C and E.

If avitaminosis on the skin of the face and body is manifested by dryness and flaking, “goose bumps” on the thighs, legs and in the folds of the knees and elbows, it is a shortage of vitamin A. Acne, acne, oily sheen, imperfections of the skin of the face are deficient B2. Vitamin E deficiency leads to stretch marks on the skin, and pathology occurs in both women and men.

Avitaminosis on the lips is manifested by a decrease in elasticity, dryness and cracks in the corners. This indicates a deficiency of B2 and B6. The neglected state can lead to infection with staphylococcal infection.

Vitamin deficiency in children, as well as in adults, is mainly associated with poor nutrition. Watching the child, you can find changeable mood, sleep disturbance, distortion in taste habits (eating chalk, earth, etc.), a sharp decrease in immunity, rashes, irritation of the mucous membranes, deformation of the skull bones (vitamin deficiency D and C). Due to the fact that the child's body is constantly evolving and growing, the absence of one or several vitamins can lead to irreversible consequences.

Treatment of beriberi

If symptoms are found, it is necessary to consult a general practitioner (pediatrician), an immunologist. Only the doctor after the diagnosis will be able to diagnose and prescribe treatment of beriberi. In addition to drugs, dietary supplements can be recommended, as well as traditional methods of restoring the immune system.

Pharmacy drugs

In the treatment of vitamin deficiency, doctors prescribe multicomponent drugs in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, syrups or injections.

Pharmaceutical preparations are classified according to the age and needs of the patient:

  1. Children under one year old can be prescribed: Vigantol, Akvadetrim for the prevention of rickets at an early age, multi-component dietary supplements Multi-Tabs Baby, Alphabet for the general strengthening of the children's body.
  2. Children 1-7 years old are offered the following vitamin-mineral complexes: Pikovit 1+, Vitamishki, Supradin Kids, Multi-Tabs. During the active phase of growth, physical and mental development, the preschooler's organism must be strengthened with multi-component preparations.
  3. Vitamins for younger and older students help reduce fatigue, strengthen the body during stress and frequent colds. Such vitamins include Alphabet, Schoolboy, Pikovit 7+, Univit Kids, Complivit Active.
  4. The period of young and middle age is characterized by high physical and mental activity, frequent disturbance of the psycho-emotional background, stress. To strengthen the body during this period, pharmaceutical preparations Complivit Antistress, Alphabet Classic, Vitrum, Duovit, Multi-Tabs Intensive are recommended.
  5. Specialized vitamin and mineral complexes:
    • drugs for pregnant and lactating mothers: Fembion, Alphabet Mom's health, Elevit, Vitrum Prenatal, Complivit mom,
    • complexes for recovery of the body in the season of colds: Multi-Tabs Immuno Plus, Biomax.

Folk methods

In the treatment of beriberi by folk remedies, decoctions of herbs, fruits of plants and shrubs, mashed potatoes and fruit and vegetable salads are introduced into the human diet. The most popular are:

  1. Sea buckthorn fruits. 100 g of frozen sea-buckthorn berries are covered with boiling water, kneaded in puree, 1 tbsp added. l honey, pour 200 ml boiling water, infuse for 15 minutes. Sea buckthorn tea is rich in vitamins C, P and B2, helps strengthen the immune system, cardiovascular and circulatory systems.
  2. Rosehip 200 ml of water and 1 tbsp. l rosehip berries placed in a container, boil in a water bath for 15-20 minutes, leave for 12 hours. Rose hip tea contains a lot of vitamin C, as well as vitamins of group B, A, E, P, K. Due to this composition, the decoction not only helps in the treatment of beriberi, but is also used in the treatment of hypertension, prevention of atherosclerosis, restores kidney function, is antiedematous means.
  3. Onions and garlic. In the treatment of vitamin C deficiency in the body consumed raw. Effective with scurvy.
  4. Red viburnum. 2 tbsp. l viburnum pour 200 ml of boiling water and let it brew for 45-60 minutes. Berry contains vitamins C, K, phosphorus, iodine, pectin, essential oils. A decoction of red viburnum is useful with a deficiency of vitamins in the body, it is also used for hypertension, treatment of bronchitis, sore throats, used as a febrifuge.
  5. Nettle. Method of preparation of juice: young shoots of the plant mince and strain through cheesecloth. Mix with carrot or cranberry juice in equal proportions, dilute with 50 ml of water, drink 3 times a day. The plant contains vitamins K, C, A, E, phosphorus, iron, organic acids. It is used to improve immunity, improves metabolism, lowers blood sugar levels, strengthens the cardiovascular system, is used for kidney disease, the gastrointestinal tract.

Treatment with traditional medicine methods can serve as an alternative to pharmaceutical preparations, however, there are also contraindications for natural ingredients. For example, garlic and onions are contraindicated in ulcers and gastritis, nettles are forbidden to use in the treatment of pregnant women.

Proper nutrition

The main cause of avitaminosis is unbalanced nutrition. To restore the balance of vitamins and minerals in the body, it is necessary to eat whole grain cereals, fruits, vegetables, berries, herbs, meat products, fish.

The most valuable and enriched with useful properties of food:

VitaminHerbal ProductsAnimal products
ACarrots, citrus fruits (lemon, mandarin, orange)Hard cheeses, cod liver, butter, eggs
B2Whole grain bread, wheat germ, broccoliVeal brains, liver, cheese, cottage cheese, egg yolk
B5Peanuts, rice, broccoli, legumesChicken meat, meat offal
B6Walnuts, bananas, green saladSalmon, oysters, milk, meat, eggs
B9Nuts, beans, oranges, lettuceOffal
CCitrus, sea buckthorn, black currant, asparagus, kiwi, strawberries
DMilk, cod liver, fatty fish
EOlive oil, fennel, spinach, almonds
PPWhite mushroomsTurkey, hare
HBiotin is found in all plant products.Beef liver, egg yolk

For a quick recovery of the body and saturation with useful microelements, it is recommended to use vegetable products raw or cooked in steam, bake meat and fish in foil or in a special dense package, include freshly squeezed juices, greens, salads in the diet. It is necessary to exclude fast food, sausage delicacies, canned food, store sauces and mayonnaise, chips, alcohol, limit the consumption of confectionery.

Safety rules and possible complications

Lack of vitamins A and E causes premature aging of the skin, hair loss, susceptibility to infections, in men - infertility.

The lack of thiamine (B1) in the body leads to polyneuropathy - a lesion of the nerve endings of the lower extremities, the extreme form is paralysis.

Riboflavin (B2) deficiency is characterized by skin dermatitis and conjunctivitis.

Lack of niacin (B3) has an effect on increasing cholesterol.

Anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency leads to frequent headaches and dizziness.

Lack of folic acid (B9) is dangerous for pregnant women, since it affects the formation of the fetus and placenta.

With a large lack of vitamin C, pain in the muscles, weight loss, nasal bleeding, an extreme degree - loss of teeth, internal hemorrhage.

Vitamin D deficiency in young children has an impact on the development of the bones of the arms, legs, spine, and the closing of the "spring". Extreme - rickets.

If you do not go to the doctor in time and do not begin prophylactic treatment, the effects of beriberi may be irreversible.

General symptoms

The symptoms of avitaminosis depend on what vitamin is missing in the body. Therefore, avitaminosis does not have an accurate and universal clinical picture.

In general, avitaminosis has the following symptoms:

  • weakness, fatigue,
  • blurred vision (with a lack of vitamin A),
  • disorders of the musculoskeletal system (vitamin D vitamin deficiency),
  • violation of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • peeling on the skin
  • poor sleep, mood swings.

If a child is diagnosed with vitamin D vitamin deficiency, this can affect the development of the nervous system and the general psychological state of the baby.

For any signs of beriberi, you need to consult a doctor for an accurate diagnosis and prescription of the correct course of treatment.

Forms of the disease

It is worth noting that this disease has several forms of development. Avitaminosis is the absence of a single vitamin in the human body. Most often, it is In1, E, A. Hypovitaminosis is the complete absence of the necessary set of vitamins in the human body. The latter form can cause more serious illnesses. If hypovitaminosis is formed in the children's body, then this may affect its physical and psychological development. In any case, avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis adversely affect the overall health of even an adult.

Hypervitaminosis

At the same time, an excess of vitamins (hypervitaminosis) in the human body can also have a negative effect. Hypervitaminosis can develop if a person regularly uses a lot more vitamins than the daily norm prescribed.

There are two forms of development of hypervitaminosis:

  • acute (according to the clinical picture resembles poisoning),
  • chronic (with regular use of large amounts of vitamins A, B1, D).

The general clinical picture of hypervitaminosis is as follows:

  • weakness and nausea
  • flaking on the skin
  • skin rash, itching,
  • headache,
  • fever, unstable temperature,
  • disorders of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • abdominal cramps, short-term pain.

But at the same time, such symptoms may not always indicate hypervitaminosis. For accurate diagnosis should consult a doctor.

As shown by medical practice, the disease is seasonal. The most acute disease manifests itself in winter and spring.

Spring avitaminosis

Spring avitaminosis is a deficiency in the body of such vitamins as E, B1, D and A. The symptoms of vitamin deficiency during this period are well expressed:

  • drowsiness, irritable state,
  • apathetic condition,
  • exacerbation of existing chronic diseases,
  • pallor, peeling of skin on hands, face,
  • brittle nails, brittle hair, loss.

In addition to such unpleasant symptoms, spring avitaminosis can cause serious illnesses. First of all, it is a metabolic disorder, the gastrointestinal tract.

In women, a general list may be added by such factors:

  • violation of the menstrual cycle,
  • strong drying of the skin on the hands,
  • rash, the formation of acne on the face.

As a rule, rashes on the skin do not cause any unpleasant physiological sensations. But it looks very unpleasant. Such violations are due to the occurrence of vitamin E deficiency in the body. It is vitamin E that is responsible for the skin condition. In the people of E vitamin is called "vitamin of youth."

Because of this, vitamin deficiency in the hands is manifested in the first place. The skin on the hands becomes too dry, cracks and peeling are formed. On the symptoms of avitaminosis on the hands may resemble a fungal disease. Therefore, you should initially contact the therapist.

The fragility of nails and hair is caused by vitamin D vitamin deficiency. The group of vitamins D is responsible for the production and preservation of calcium in the body.Most of all, this vitamin is found in fish, meat, dairy products. Therefore, to prevent vitamin D vitamin deficiency, these foods should be included in your diet. Especially in the winter.

Spring avitaminosis is treated quite simply - you just need to balance your diet and more often be in the fresh air. Such a rhythm of life will protect a person not only from this disease state, but also from many other diseases.

Winter vitamin deficiency

Winter avitaminosis is most common, since it is during this period that a person eats more coarse food and consumes little natural products.

Causes of winter avitaminosis may be the following:

  • long medication
  • poor nutrition,
  • lack of vitamins (avitaminosis E, B1),
  • poor assimilation of food
  • effects of long-term treatment, the use of sorbents.

The elderly and children are especially affected by winter avitaminosis. When vitamin E avitaminosis can develop disorders in the nervous system. With a shortage of vitamin B1 disturbed sleep, memory, reduced appetite.

It is very important in the winter not just to use vitamins in the form of pills or pills. You should balance your diet, eat a sufficient amount of plant food and natural vitamins, more often be in the fresh air.

Diagnostics

A general diagnosis for suspected diseases includes a personal examination by a general practitioner or immunologist. If you suspect this ailment in children should contact a pediatrician.

No instrumental or laboratory tests are required. Such tests can be administered individually, depending on the overall health of the person.

Treatment of beriberi depends on what group of beneficial elements is missing in the body. In any case, how to properly treat the disorder is known only to a competent specialist - an immunologist, therapist or pediatrician in children. Drink any vitamins that will give the pharmacy is unacceptable, because you can only exacerbate the situation. Preparations of such a range of actions must be prescribed strictly on an individual basis.

Treatment of beriberi includes adherence to the proper nutritional system, perhaps even diet. Vitamins for vitamin deficiency and their number prescribed by a doctor. As such, drugs are not. Most often, these are complex vitamin compounds in the form of tablets or dragees. But do not forget about natural products. It is worth noting that vitamins in natural products are much better absorbed by the body.

Drink any vitamins with vitamin deficiency should not be. Excessive amounts of beneficial trace elements can also be harmful.

Prevention

Avitaminosis prevention is quite simple. You should simply adhere to proper nutrition, healthy lifestyle, especially in the winter-spring period.

Especially important prevention of beriberi for those who have a predisposition to the disease. For such people, it is important to go through the “preparatory stage” before a possible exacerbation of the disease. In the autumn, it is better to drink a course of vitamins that an immunologist can prescribe.

Consequences of beriberi A for the eyes

The symptoms of avitaminosis A on the part of the organs of vision are:

  • accumulation of crusts in the corners of the eyes,
  • xerosis (damage to the conjunctiva and cornea),
  • Bito spots (spots on the eye sclera),
  • keratomalacia (corneal softening),
  • hemeralopia (inability to adapt to low light),
  • color blindness (inability to distinguish colors).
In the absence of the required amount of vitamin A in the body, the functionality of the lacrimal glands is disturbed. The surface of the eyes ceases to be moistened, as a result of which they are not cleaned of dust. Contamination accumulates in the corners of the eyes in the form of crusts and frozen mucus.

Prolonged deficiency of retinol leads to the development of xerosis, which affects the conjunctiva (the tissue covering the eyes and the inner surface of the eyelids) and the cornea of ​​the eyes. At the same time on the surface of the eye plaques appear, which are called Bito stains and may be gray or white. Subsequently, the conjunctiva becomes gray, loses its luster and sensitivity. Patients experience burning sensation, foreign body sensation, blurred vision.
The next step in xerosis is keratomalacia, which is characterized by softening and in some cases disintegration of the cornea and conjunctiva. When beriberi in children, keratomagulation is the cause of complete or partial loss of vision.

Another symptom of vitamin A deficiency is hemeralopia, the second name of which is night blindness. With this pathology, the eyes do not adapt well to the lack of light, and the person begins to see worse in the dark and at night. Often with vitamin A deficiency develops color blindness, in which a person ceases to distinguish colors.

Muscle weakness in avitaminosis E

Muscle weakness is a characteristic symptom for tocopherol deficiency. Impaired muscle tone leads to a decrease in efficiency, passivity, and increased fatigue. Weakness can manifest itself both in the whole body and in its individual parts. Lower and upper extremities are most often affected. In addition to loss of muscle tone, with a deficiency of vitamin E, patients often complain of numbness and tingling in the arms and legs, loss of sensitivity, weakening of grasping and other reflexes.

In older people, vitamin E deficiency is often manifested by severe pain in the calf muscles that occurs when walking. In an effort to reduce pain, a patient with vitamin E deficiency changes his pace, which leads to lameness.

Avitaminosis E symptoms during pregnancy

The term tocopherol, translated from Greek, means bringing posterity. Thus, vitamin E was identified at the beginning of the last century, when it was established that without it, normal conception and the course of pregnancy are impossible. This element has a positive effect on the ovulation and maturation of the egg. Also tocopherol prepares the female body for fertilization and fixation of the fetus in the uterus. Therefore, one of the symptoms of avitaminosis E is the inability of a woman to become pregnant. With the development of tocopherol deficiency in the process of carrying a child, the signs of this pathological condition appear from the first trimester.

Symptoms of avitaminosis E on the skin

Tocopherol is an effective antioxidant (a substance that fights aging). With a lack of this element, the barrier functions of the skin deteriorate, with the result that it is more exposed to the negative effects of environmental factors. The skin with a deficiency of tocopherol lose their tone, becoming less elastic and flabby.

Lack of vitamin E adversely affects blood clotting and inhibits the healing of scratches and other skin damage. Also, in the absence of the required amount of tocopherol, the metabolism in the body is disturbed. Under the influence of these factors, patients with avitaminosis E suffer from acne and other skin rashes. A common symptom of vitamin E deficiency is the appearance of red spots on the body. Often, due to lack of tocopherol, anemia develops, which is manifested by pallor of the skin.

Symptoms of avitaminosis E on the hands

With a deficiency of vitamin E increases the synthesis of melanin (pigment substance), as a result of which pigment spots are formed on the skin. Most often, pigment staining of the skin is observed on the hands.

Dryness and flaking of the skin also belong to the symptoms of vitamin E deficiency.
The skin thinning and begin to crack. Nail plates lose their strength and become brittle.

Symptoms Avitaminosis B1 (thiamine)

Vitamin B1 or thiamine is a substance that is involved in many energy processes of the body, but mainly acts as an enzyme in the reactions of the nervous tissue (this vitamin is also called antineurotic). Therefore, a deficiency of this vitamin mainly affects the activity of the nervous system.

Symptoms of vitamin B1 beriberi from the nervous system are:

  • increased fatigue
  • sleep disturbance,
  • nervousness and irritability
  • increased tearfulness
  • muscle weakness.
These symptoms are manifestations of mild and moderate vitamin B1 deficiency. They arise as a result of impaired energy metabolism and the synthesis of nucleic acids. It is known that the biological role of thiamine is to provide energy potential in the nervous tissue (it participates in the conduction of nerve impulses), as well as in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acid (DNA and RNA). When vitamin B1 deficiency develops in nerve cells, this primarily affects the speed of nerve impulses and energy metabolism. Clinically, this is expressed in the above symptoms, namely, increased weakness, irritability, tearfulness and other symptoms of depletion of the nervous system.

Severe vitamin B1 deficiency is known as the disease called beriberi.

Beriberi symptoms in children

In children, thiamine avitaminosis is extremely rare. As a rule, it is observed in infants from about 2 to 4 months who were born from mothers suffering from severe beriberi. This pathology manifests itself with very diverse symptoms.

Symptoms of beriberi in children are:

  • signs of heart failure - bluish color of the skin, wheezing in the lungs, low cardiac output,
  • signs of damage to the nervous system - anxiety, sleep disturbance, lack of tendon reflexes,
  • aphonia - a condition in which the sonority of the child’s voice is disturbed,
  • prolonged absence of stool (constipation) and other disorders of the gastrointestinal system,
  • visual impairment.

Signs of Vitamin B B2 (riboflavin)

Vitamin B2 or riboflavin is involved in the regulation of growth functions and cell reproduction. It is involved in the main oxidation-reduction reactions of the body, and is also necessary for the formation of red blood cells. Riboflavin is also called a beauty vitamin, because it provides healthy skin and its appendages (hair and nails).

The organs that are affected by lack of riboflavin include:

  • skin and its derivatives (hair, nails),
  • mucous membranes - the mucosa of the tongue, conjunctiva,
  • eyes - sclera, cornea.

Manifestations of vitamin A B2 on the skin

Skin manifestations in vitamin B2 deficiency are the earliest among all the signs of vitamin deficiency. The skin becomes dry and flaky, cracks appear on it. Manifestations of vitamin B2 beriberi are seborrheic dermatitis and angular cheilitis.

Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis are:

  • redness of the skin,
  • peeling and dry skin,
  • accumulation in the sebum hair follicles,
  • sometimes formation of whitish or yellow scales.
Symptoms of dermatitis can appear anywhere, but the favorite places are the wings of the nose and auricles.
Angular cheilitis is called a lesion of the skin and simultaneously of the mucous membrane in the area of ​​the corners of the mouth. Initially, there is a slight maceration (softening) in the corners, which is further complicated by the appearance of cracks. In the people, these inflamed cracks are called jade. Further, when joining the infection, the buns can become inflamed and bleed.

Lack of vitamin B2 can also manifest itself by various rashes, which most often have the appearance of red scaly spots. Sometimes the periungual bed may inflame. However, most often the nails themselves become brittle. Hair also loses shine, splits and falls out.

Eye symptoms with vitamin deficiency B2

Eye symptoms with riboflavin deficiency is manifested in photophobia, burning sensation and pain in the eyes. All these symptoms are associated with the development of blepharitis, keratitis and conjunctivitis. When blepharitis inflamed edges of the eyelids, with keratitis - the cornea of ​​the eye is affected. In severe cases of beriberi, there may also be a cataract, in which the lens becomes cloudy and the patient loses sight. Conjunctivitis is a frequent manifestation of ocular symptoms. In this manifestation, the mucous eyes are always red and swollen, and the patient is tormented by photophobia, burning sensation and the feeling of sand (or other foreign body) in the eyes.

In the later stages, when severe vitamin B2 deficiency develops, symptoms of the nervous system and anemic syndrome are added. Dysfunction of the nervous system is manifested in impaired coordination of movements (ataxia), impaired sensitivity (paresthesias) and elevated tendon reflexes. Anemic syndrome is characterized by a reduced number of red blood cells and hemoglobin. With anemia, there is also increased fatigue associated with oxygen deficiency, frequent heartbeat, and excessive sleepiness.

Manifestations of avitaminosis B3 (vitamin PP)

There are several synonyms for vitamin B3, the most popular of which are niacin, nicotinic acid, vitamin PP. This vitamin is involved in many vital reactions of the body. However, the main role is the generation of energy and the normalization of the cardiovascular system (heart and blood circulation). Since in order to obtain energy, niacin breaks down fats, it also has an anti-cholesterol effect.

The symptoms of vitamin B3 beriberi are:

  • depression,
  • dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • elevated cholesterol.

Symptoms of pellagra or avitaminosis PP

This pathology is characterized by the classic triad of symptoms, which includes dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia (in the people - dementia).

Dermatitis
Dermatitis is the inflammation of the skin, namely its upper layer - the epidermis. Dermatitis with pellagra is characterized by rough and coarse skin. This is the main manifestation of pellagra, because from Italian this term means “rough skin”. The skin at the same time inflamed, bright red and constantly flaky. These manifestations are especially noticeable on the face, neck, shoulders, that is, on those parts of the body that are exposed to ultraviolet rays.

Diarrhea
Diarrhea is called intestinal upset, in which stool is observed more than 3 times a day. In this case, the stool is liquid, unformed, with an admixture of undigested food particles. Symptoms of avitaminosis such as loss of appetite and impaired digestion are associated with diarrhea.

Dementia
Dementia (dementia) is an extreme degree of damage to the nervous system during pellagra. At first, symptoms such as weakness, memory loss, confusion. Patients begin to forget the elementary things, become absent-minded. Then come symptoms such as disorientation in time and space. Senile dementia develops, which means a complete breakdown of mental functions. In the people such condition is called senile marasmus.

Drowsiness with vitamin B6 vitamin deficiency

Drowsiness is one of the most common symptom of vitamin B6 deficiency. Lack of vitamin B6 provokes a number of pathological processes. As a result, a patient with pyridoxine deficiency does not sleep well at night. Chronic lack of sleep leads to distraction, inability to concentrate and reduced working capacity.

The factors that trigger drowsiness are:

  • impaired production of neurotransmitters (hormones that transmit nerve impulses),
  • poor quality supply of nerve cells with glucose,
  • muscle cramps during sleep.
Vitamin B6 is involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, which are necessary for the normal functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system. In addition, the lack of pyridoxine adversely affects the process of supplying nerve cells with glucose. Nervous system disorders adversely affect the quality of sleep, which prevents the body from recovering at night and leads to daytime sleepiness.
Spasms of the calf muscles at night, which are a frequent occurrence with vitamin B6 deficiency, also disrupt the relaxation process. At the same time, convulsions have a pronounced character, patients awaken in the middle of the night and cannot sleep for a long time.

Manifestations of avitaminosis B6 on the face

Skin lesions are included in the triad of symptoms accompanying pyridoxine deficiency. Most often, skin problems take the form of seborrheic dermatitis, the site of localization is the face.

Symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency that appear on the face are:

  • peeling of the face (full or partial)
  • dry skin in the nasolabial folds,
  • peeling of the skin over the eyebrows and around the eyes.

Signs of Vitamin B12

A deficiency of vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin is manifested by various disorders of the hematopoietic, nervous, and gastrointestinal system (the classic triad of symptoms). These symptoms are explained by the fact that vitamin B12 is involved in the synthesis of red blood cells, choline and fatty acids that the brain needs. Also, with a lack of cyanocobalamin in the body, toxic methyl malonic acid is formed, which causes toxic damage to the lateral cords of the spinal cord and the development of funicular myelosis.

Signs of vitamin B12 beriberi are:

  • megaloblastic anemia,
  • damage to the nervous system
  • lesion of the gastrointestinal tract.

Symptoms and treatment of vitamin A deficiency

Hypovitaminosis is divided into primary and secondary. The first ones are associated with a deficiency of vitamins in the diet and monotonous diet, secondary ones are caused by a violation of absorption in the gastrointestinal tract or the process of assimilation of vitamins in the body, as well as a high need for them during pregnancy, during the rapid growth and development of the body, as well as during significant mental and physical loads, after severe infectious diseases, pathology of the endocrine system, with helminthiases.

Anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency

Anemia is a decrease in the number of red blood cells and the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood. With vitamin B12 vitamin deficiency anemia is the most common manifestation.

The cause of anemia is insufficient and poor-quality formation of blood cells, for the formation of which this vitamin is necessary. When cyanocobalamin deficiency develops hemoblastosis, which is characterized by large forms of white blood cells, platelets and the rapid destruction of red blood cells. A distinctive feature of B12-deficient anemia is that along with mature red blood cells, young forms of red blood cells (called reticulocytes) are also reduced. This means that the pathological process is implemented at the stage of the formation of red blood cells. There is not only a decrease in the number of blood cells (erythrocytes, reticulocytes, platelets), but also a change in their shape. They increase in size, but at the same time, their wall becomes fragile and therefore they quickly collapse. Hematoblastosis with avitaminosis B12 is also characterized by a decrease in the number of leukocytes and platelets.

In anemia, a person experiences constant headaches, dizziness, weakness, and increased exhaustion. The reason for this is oxygen deficiency, which always accompanies anemia (since hemoglobin is a carrier of oxygen). B12-deficient anemia is characterized by specific coloring of the skin. So, the patient's skin gets a shade of lemon color. This color is due to the release of large amounts of bilirubin from the red blood cells into the bloodstream. He gives the skin a specific shade.

Laboratory picture of blood in B12-deficient anemia

concentration less than 3.7 x 10, increased in size

reduced, less than 4 x 10 to the ninth degree

reduced, less than 180 x 10 to the ninth degree

less than 120 grams per liter

more than 17 - 18 micromoles per liter

abnormal erythrocyte inclusions

corpuscles Jolly - nuclear fragments

Kebot rings - shells of destroyed red blood cells

Intestinal Disease in Avitaminosis B12

Signs of gastrointestinal lesions in vitamin B12 vitamin deficiency are:

  • nausea, vomiting,
  • recurrent constipation
  • lack of appetite and, as a result, weight loss,
  • glossitis (inflammation of the tongue), manifested by a sensation of burning and stinging.
With a deficit of B12, glossitis is called Gunter. It is characterized by a change in the structure of the language. This is reflected in a change in color (the tongue becomes bright red) and the smoothing of its relief.

It should be noted that despite the abundance of symptoms from the gastrointestinal system, the clinical picture is often blurred. The above symptoms may periodically appear and disappear or be replaced by another symptom. This is the reason that patients for a long time do not seek the help of a doctor. Drowsiness and weakness, headache, intermittent nausea, and poor appetite do not provide a vivid clinical picture.

Damage to the nervous system in avitaminosis B12

The defeat of the nervous system with a deficiency of vitamin B12 often accelerates the diagnosis of beriberi. Neurological syndrome with cyanocobalamin deficiency is called funicular myelosis. The cause of neurological symptoms is the absence of myelin in the nervous system. Vitamin B12 is involved in the reactions of myelin metabolism, which further forms the myelin sheath of nerve fibers. This membrane provides nerve impulses through the nerve fibers 10 times faster than unmyelinated fibers. Therefore, with the funicular myelosis, the myelin sheath degenerates with the further development of motor and sensory impairments. This pathology is characterized by damage to both the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord.

Manifestations of neurological syndrome in avitaminosis B12 are:

  • emotional lability - increased irritability, low mood,
  • unstable gait,
  • numbness of the lower limbs,
  • stiffness in the legs
  • severe muscle weakness
  • cramps (sharp muscle contractions),
  • in late stages, loss of deep sensitivity.

Symptoms of hypovitaminosis A

Each type of hypovitaminosis has its own symptoms. All manifestations of pathology often develop quite a long time and increase with time, following one after the other. With the exception of vitamin A and vitamin B12, the body has a reserve supply of vitamins, at the same time, these reserves are not so great. There are three stages of the development of pathology. At the first stage, the disease begins with a general disorder of the work of a number of internal organs; these manifestations have no specificity and are characterized by a decrease in tone, efficiency, and decrease in resistance. It is safe to say about the reasons for such a state at this stage only after certain research has been carried out in the laboratory using stress tests. In the second stage of the disease, the consequences of the relative deficiency of vitamins become noticeable, and the clinical manifestations of the pathology reflect a lack of specific substances. In the third stage of deficiency, the pathology reflects the complete absence of a vitamin or a violation of its absorption.

Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency appear when there is a lack of vitamin A in the human body, which may be due to poor nutrition, a violation of the absorption of a substance in the intestinal lumen, a violation of the formation of vitamin A from provitamin A - carotene.

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamins, per day it should be ingested in a human body in a dose of 1.5 mg or 5000 IU. It is necessary to ensure the metabolic processes for the growth and development of the whole organism, to maintain the health of the skin and mucous membranes, eye health, normal operation of the sweat and sebaceous glands. Lack of vitamin contributes to dry skin, its peeling, the appearance of pustules. Patients suffering from vitamin deficiency And often suffer from infectious diseases, diseases of the respiratory system, urinary system, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, they suffer from general weakness and constant malaise. Violations on the part of the organs of sight can manifest themselves as “night blindness”, thus losing the ability to distinguish objects at dusk. Pathology progresses in early spring, when the concentration of vitamin A in food is minimal. Sometimes vitamin A deficiency develops on the background of anemia, weight loss, during pregnancy, accompanies some eye diseases, such as glaucoma. Reduced visual acuity is sometimes associated with a decrease in color sensation to blue and yellow.

Anemia with folic acid deficiency

Anemia with folic acid deficiency is called megaloblastic. It is characterized by the appearance of large forms of red blood cells (macrocytes) of irregular oval shape. Basophil granularity in erythrocytes and nuclear hypersegmentation in leukocytes are also detected. This picture is specific to megaloblastic anemias and is not found in other species.

The reason for the development of anemia with folic acid deficiency is a violation of DNA synthesis and, as a result, abnormal mitosis (cell division as a way of their reproduction). As a result, in the bone marrow there is a delay in the maturation of red blood cells, and their further reproduction (since there is not enough building material for this). Thus, the process of blood formation is disturbed, which concerns not only erythrocytes, but also other blood cells.

Blood picture in case of folic acid avitaminosis

Leukocytes less than 4 x 10 to the ninth degree

Platelets less than 180 x 10 to the ninth degree

Reticulocytes (young forms of red blood cells) less than 2 percent.

The blood smear contains cells of various sizes.

The presence of red blood cells of various forms, for example, club-shaped or pear-shaped.

Leukocytes with several segments of nuclei are detected.

The presence of megaloblasts. Megaloblasts are called large-sized erythrocyte precursors with a delayed maturation of the nucleus, with normal cytoplasm.

Damage to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with folic acid deficiency

Abnormal mitosis (cell division) occurs not only at the level of the bone marrow, but also at the level of other systems. Thus, the appearance of giant epithelial cells at the level of the gastrointestinal mucosa leads to the development of inflammatory processes.

For inflammation with folic acid deficiency include:

  • stomatitis - inflammation of the oral mucosa, which is accompanied by severe pain,
  • glossitis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the tongue, which is manifested by a sensation of burning and tearing in the tongue,
  • gastritis - an inflammatory lesion of the gastric mucosa, which is characterized by pain in the stomach, nausea, vomiting,
  • enteritis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, accompanied by a disorder of the chair.

Folic acid deficiency in pregnant women

The most dramatic effect is avitaminosis of folic acid in pregnant women. This vitamin makes a decisive decision in the development of the fetus at an early stage of pregnancy (namely in the first trimester). It participates in the formation of the neural tube, blood formation processes and the formation of the placenta itself.

The consequences of folic acid deficiency in pregnant women are:

  • anomalies of the nervous system, which are most often incompatible with life - cerebral hernia, hydrocephalus (“dropsy of the brain”), anencephaly,
  • anomalies of formation and attachment of the placenta,
  • vascular abnormalities, which leads to abortion,
  • premature birth and, as a result, the birth of premature babies,
  • mental retardation and mental disorders in children.
In pregnant women themselves, folic acid deficiency is accompanied by the development of megaloblastic anemia, with all the ensuing consequences. The main danger posed by anemia for pregnant women is chronic oxygen deficiency in the fetus. Since the main function of hemoglobin, which decreases with anemia, is oxygen transport, as it decreases, oxygen deficiency or hypoxia develops. Chronic hypoxia is also the cause of multiple fetal abnormalities and the development of pediatric encephalopathy. Delayed fetal development occurs in every fourth woman who suffers from anemia. Also, anemia during pregnancy is dangerous at increased risk of uterine bleeding (because megaloblastic anemia is accompanied by a decrease in platelets). The threat of abortion in anemia occurs in 30 - 40 percent of cases, premature detachment of the placenta - in 25 percent. Also, childbirth in anemia is often complicated by bleeding and inflammatory complications in the early postpartum period.

Manifestations of avitaminosis C (scurvy)

Vitamin C deficiency is one of the most common vitamin deficiencies. Vitamin C or ascorbic acid regulates the most important functions of the body. In order to understand how dangerous vitamin C deficiency is, it is necessary to know its function and biological role.

The functions of ascorbic acid in the body are:

  • detoxification and neutralization of superoxide radicals,
  • immunomodulation function, due to the recovery of vitamin E and interferon,
  • promotes iron absorption,
  • stimulates collagen synthesis,
  • participates in the formation of serotonin from tryptophan,
  • has a strengthening effect on blood vessels,
  • takes part in the formation of bile acids.
Thus, vitamin C is involved in the maintenance of the work of many organs and systems. Its deficiency affects the immune, hematopoietic, nervous and gastrointestinal systems of the body.
It is customary to distinguish a lack of vitamin C and its complete absence. Lack of ascorbic acid develops within one to three months of its deficiency in the diet. The complete lack of vitamin C in the body is called scurvy. This condition develops after three to six months of ascorbic acid deficiency. There are three levels of vitamin C deficiency.

The degrees of vitamin C deficiency in the body include:

  • first degree - manifested by such symptoms as muscle pain, fatigue, increase in gums in volume,
  • second degree - manifested by loss of weight, mental exhaustion, recurrent nosebleeds,
  • third degree - characterized by hemorrhages in the internal organs, gingivitis gangrenous nature, tooth loss.

First degree avitaminosis C

It starts with mild symptoms of malaise and fatigue. The reason for this is anemia (decrease in blood hemoglobin) and reduced immunity. Anemia develops due to impaired iron absorption at the level of the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, ascorbic acid is involved in the conversion of ferric iron into ferrous iron. Iron, which enters the body from food and is used to synthesize hemoglobin, has a third degree of valence, but at the level of the mucous membrane, only iron of the second valence is absorbed. Vitamin C converts ferric into ferrous iron, thereby ensuring its absorption. Next, iron is synthesized gem, part of hemoglobin. When there is a lack of vitamin C, the iron is not absorbed by the mucous membrane, as it remains trivalent.This leads to its deficiency and, consequently, to the development of anemia. Since hemoglobin is an oxygen transporter, oxygen deficiency develops when it is deficient. Therefore, a person experiences fatigue, severe weakness, pain in the muscles.

The gums swell a little and often bleed. Small hemorrhages are also characteristic of the first degree of beriberi. They occur due to excessive fragility of blood vessels and increased permeability of the vascular wall. Ascorbic acid plays a major role in enhancing vascular tone and resistance. When it is deficient, the blood vessels become brittle and fragile, so any blow provokes the formation of hematomas and hemorrhages.

Third degree avitaminosis C

In the third degree of avitaminosis C, patients are in a very serious condition. Extensive hemorrhages develop into the muscles and internal organs, which entails various complications. Trophic ulcers appear on the lower limbs due to hematoma infection. Gingivitis becomes gangrenous in nature - the gums constantly bleed, swell, and also become covered by ulceration. All this leads to the fact that teeth start falling out at all.

Numerous hemorrhages in the internal organs are often complicated by the addition of infection. Therefore, mortality at this stage due to sepsis is very high.

Symptoms of scurvy

Tsinga or scorch is manifested by various symptoms. At the initial stage, it is characterized by general symptoms, manifested in the form of weakness, fatigue and pain in the legs. Subsequently, weakness, apathy, and drowsiness join these manifestations. However, specific symptoms for scurvy are frequent hemorrhages and damage to the gums.

The gums become bluish, swollen and easily injured when brushing your teeth. The gum tissue becomes loose, and the teeth begin to loose. Over time, fixing the teeth in the jaw weakens so much that the teeth begin to fall out.

Due to impaired collagen synthesis, the vascular wall becomes very brittle. This entails frequent hemorrhages and the formation of hematomas (accumulations of blood). These hematomas can form in the internal organs, in the skin, in the subperiosteal space. If the hematoma is localized between the bone and the periosteum (most often it occurs on the lower limb), then it provokes severe pain. This symptom is often observed in vitamin C vitamin deficiency in children.

Hemorrhages in the skin can be in the form of a small rash (at the initial stage) or in the form of dark red spots (ecchymosis). With the development of major hemorrhages, the skin under them can be rejected. So, scurvy ulcers are formed. Violation of the integrity of the blood vessels in the internal organs is accompanied by nasal, gastric, intestinal, renal bleeding. Tsinge is always accompanied by anemia, physical and mental exhaustion.

Causes of Vitamin D D

Vitamin D deficiency is a common pathology that is favored by climatic conditions, dietary habits or certain diseases.

The factors that lead to vitamin D avitaminosis are:

  • overweight,
  • lack of sunlight
  • vegetarian food system,
  • deterioration in the absorption (absorption) of the vitamin,
  • poor processing of vitamin into active form,
  • taking drugs that violate the metabolism of the vitamin.
Overweight
Most people, whose weight index exceeds 30 (the norm varies from 18, 5 to 25), suffer from a lack of vitamin D. The deficiency develops because the fatty tissue absorbs this vitamin in large quantities.

Lack of sunlight
One form of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) is synthesized in the body by exposure to sunlight. Therefore, residents of the northern regions often lack this element. Also, the deficiency of this vitamin is affected by people who spend a large amount of time in rooms where sunlight does not penetrate. The production of cholecalciferol is significantly reduced when using sunscreens, since they do not allow the skin to absorb ultraviolet light. Inhibits the synthesis of vitamin D melanin (a natural pigment of the skin), so people with a dark skin tone are more at risk of developing vitamin deficiency.

Vegetarian food system
Vitamin D is presented in two forms (cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol) and each of them is found in animal products. Therefore, people who follow a strict vegetarian diet and refuse fish, liver, eggs, are subject to this pathology.

Vitamin absorption impairment
In the presence of certain diseases, the body’s ability to absorb vitamin D from food is significantly reduced. Inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) worsen the absorption functions of the mucous membrane, which leads to a deficiency of this element. Avitaminosis D is often found in patients with Crohn's disease (inflammatory lesion of the gastrointestinal tract), cystic fibrosis (pathology of organs secreting mucus, including the intestines).

Poor processing of the vitamin into the active form
In order for vitamin D to be absorbed by the body, it must go to the active form. The processing process takes place in the liver, then in the kidneys. Therefore, when the deterioration of the functionality of these organs can develop a deficiency of this vitamin. The most susceptible to beriberi D due to its poor-quality transformation of people in old age.

Taking drugs that violate the metabolism of the vitamin
The group of drugs that inhibit the metabolism of vitamin D include antacids (means for lowering the acidity of gastric juice). Reduce the quality of assimilation of this vitamin drugs, designed to combat high cholesterol. Vitamin D mineral metabolism and synthetic laxatives worsen.

Signs of Vitamin D Avitaminosis in Children

In children, vitamin D deficiency affects the state of the bone and nervous system. The first signs of the disease appear at the age of 2 - 3 months. The child becomes irritable, tearful, does not sleep well. There is an increased susceptibility to external stimuli - it is frightened by loud noises, flashes of light. First of all, the baby does not sleep well, he hardly falls asleep, and when he falls asleep he often wakes up. Sleep is very superficial and intermittent. During sleep, the child’s parents notice that he is starting to sweat a lot. Especially this sweating is noticeable on the scalp, in the neck. The child begins to rub the back of his head on the pillow, which leads to areas of baldness in this area.

The muscles of the child become lethargic, and muscular hypotonia develops. It is worth noting that, for children of this age, on the contrary, an increased muscle tone (hyper tone) is characteristic. Therefore, when the physiological hypertonus is replaced by hypotoneus, this is immediately noticeable. Children become sedentary and apathetic.

Vitamin D deficiency has a major effect on bone structure. Thus, in case of vitamin D deficiency, the bone structures soften and the bone tissue elements are resorbed. This phenomenon is called osteomalacia. It is caused by a violation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, which occurs with a deficiency of vitamin D. It is known that the biological effect of vitamin is to ensure the absorption of calcium and phosphorus at the intestinal level. After these micronutrients are absorbed, they are transported by the blood plasma to the bone structures. Under the influence of parathyroid hormone, it is saturated with calcium and phosphorus of the bones. However, with a lack of vitamin this does not happen. Therefore, vitamin D avitaminosis is accompanied by impaired calcium-phosphorus metabolism.

Bone structures of the child become soft and, first of all, it is noticeable on the bones of the skull. The sutures of the skull become malleable, and also the closure of a large spring is delayed. Later, curvature of the bones of the arms, legs and spine develops. Appears such a symptom as "rachitic rosary." Beads are called thickening, which are formed at the junction of the cartilaginous and bony parts of the costal arch. Also what parents pay attention to is the delay in the appearance of the first teeth, the development of rickets.

Watch the video: Diseases Caused by Malnutrition (December 2019).

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