A person who has experienced discomfort in the abdominal area is advised to be examined by a gastroenterologist. It should be noted that if the area of activity of a surgeon or psychiatrist does not cause questions, then the specificity of the latter’s work interests many patients. It is not surprising, because not everyone knows what kind of a doctor is a gastroenterologist, what is the treatment? Meanwhile, this specialist observes and treats diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT).
Field of activity
So, let's understand what does a gastroenterologist? What treats? It should be noted - the doctor observes all the organs that are involved in the digestive process.
Unfortunately, today a gastroenterologist is one of the most sought-after healers. Because many reasons can lead a patient to the doctor’s office. Consider them:
- Diseases of the stomach. A gastroenterologist treats peptic ulcers, gastritis, polyps, oncological formations.
- Ailments of the gallbladder. Go to the doctor treated with cholecystitis. This is a massive inflammation of the bladder. As a result, digestive functions are significantly impaired. The doctor treats and biliary tract dyskinesia. The disease is characterized by reduced patency and mobility of the ducts. In this case, dyskinesia is not an inflammatory, but a somatic phenomenon. As a result, the patient may have difficulty and even completely stop the digestive processes in the body. The patient is experiencing a significant deterioration in health.
- Diseases of the pancreas. As a rule, in most cases, the doctor is faced with pancreatitis. This disease is an inflammation of the pancreas. It is characterized by a delay in the production of digestive enzymes in the gland. Subsequently, these processes lead to the destruction of the pancreas. Often, such an illness from the acute form becomes chronic.
- Diseases of the spleen. Doctor treats cysts, tumors of the body. And other pathological conditions of the spleen are specific to the doctor.
- Bowel ailments. Patients with various inflammatory processes in this area are referred to a gastroenterologist. These are colitis, duodenitis. Also, a gastroenterologist treats dysbacteriosis. It is a disease that provokes a change in the composition of the intestinal flora. Appealed to the doctor and with enterocolitis, parasitic invasions.
When should I visit a gastroenterologist?
Unfortunately, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are quite common today. And so gastroenterology is one of the most common areas of medicine. In this case, patients of doctors of this direction are people of all ages. Indeed, even infants often need to consult a doctor such as a gastroenterologist. What does the doctor treat in babies? Of course, dysbacteriosis actual for infants.
When should you seek help from this specialist? As a rule, the patient's visit depends on a variety of reasons, the main one being the patient's well-being. While the symptoms are mild, a visit to the gastroenterologist is postponed. And only with obvious signs of illness that affect the general state of health and quality of life, the patient comes to the doctor.
And attention requires any discomfort associated with the gastrointestinal tract. This may be a heaviness, pain in the stomach or intestines, frequent constipation, bloating and other similar circumstances.
When a visit to the doctor should not be postponed
If we talk about symptomatology, then there are a number of signs, the appearance of which requires an appeal to a gastroenterologist.
These reasons include:
- frequent after eating heartburn,
- bitter taste in the mouth,
- unpleasant belching (often occurs after eating),
- the smell from the mouth,
- pain, heaviness in the stomach, nausea (manifested before eating and disappears after it),
- violation of the chair,
- frequent pain in the hypochondrium, intestine, stomach,
- skin rashes of a non-infectious nature, desquamation, eczema, causeless deterioration of hair, nails, skin,
- unusual hue fecal discharge, the occurrence of vomiting (this symptom requires immediate treatment to the doctor).
Do not neglect the advice of a doctor and those people who have been treated with medication for a long time. It is recommended to visit the doctor for patients undergoing radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
Diseases treated by a gastroenterologist
The list of illnesses falling under the competence of the doctor is quite extensive. It should be remembered - the gastroenterologist deals with all diseases associated with the digestive system. What does the doctor treat?
We will try to provide the most complete list of ailments that are included in the specifics of this specialist:
- antibiotic-dependent colitis
- Whipple's disease
- Crohn's disease,
- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma),
- hemorrhagic colitis,
- intestinal obstruction (dynamic),
- dysphagia lusory,
- diarrhea, constipation,
- spasm (diffuse) of the esophagus,
- intestinal lymphangiectasia,
- lump in the throat,
- acid reflux,
- sugar intolerance,
- ulcerative colitis (non-specific)
- food toxicoinfection, triggered by bacteria Clostridium perfringens and staphylococcus,
- membranous esophagitis,
- syndrome of "lazy" bowel (colon)
- liver steatosis,
- malabsorption syndrome,
- nausea, vomiting,
- irritable bowel syndrome
- tropical sprue
- food poisoning (chemical)
- enlarged liver
- chronic pancreatitis,
- peptic ulcer
- celiac disease
- an excess of vitamin A,
- illnesses provoked by salmonella, enterobacteria,
- Barrett's esophagus.
Organs monitored by a doctor
As you can see, the gastroenterologist is involved in so many diseases. What treats (what diseases) this doctor is now clear.
To complete the picture, let's focus on the human organs that are observed by the doctor:
- the intestines are thick and thin,
- biliary tract,
The doctor's consultation
Having examined what diseases the gastroenterologist treats, consider a modern method of diagnosis.
Doctor's consultation includes:
- Preliminary survey of the patient, a detailed collection of anamnesis.
- Examination of the patient with palpation of the abdominal wall.
- Diagnostics (ultrasound, FGDS).
- Delivery of tests (blood, feces, urine).
- Selection of effective treatment.
- Adjusting the diet. Selection of an appropriate diet.
- Constant monitoring and control over the course of treatment.
Diseases of the esophagus
One of the common ailments with which patients go to an appointment with a gastroenterologist are:
- Hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm. With this disease, the natural valve located between the esophagus and the stomach does not function. The patient has pain in the hypochondrium. Often the symptoms are accompanied by an unpleasant smell from the mouth, belching.
- Dysphagia. Inflammatory and other pathological processes in the pharynx, larynx, oral cavity, esophagus lead to difficulty swallowing.
- Gullet ulcer.
Diseases of the stomach and ailments of the duodenum
The specifics of the doctor include many pathologies of the above-mentioned organs. The following diseases are most commonly diagnosed:
- Duodenitis. A disease characterized by inflammation in the duodenum.
- Gastritis. A disease in which the gastric mucosa is inflamed. This pathology seriously disrupts digestion. And this is reflected even in the general well-being of the patient.
- Gastric or duodenal ulcer.
Quite often, various ailments are accompanied by an unpleasant taste, belching, rumbling in the stomach, violation of the chair. It should be understood that all such signs signal a pathological process in the body. Therefore, it is imperative that you tell your doctor about them.
Along with serious pathological processes, a gastroenterologist treats constipation and diarrhea. Consequently, the unpleasant symptoms will get rid of much faster and easier. Postponing the problem for later is fraught with serious consequences.
Ignoring frequent constipation causes very serious complications. In most cases hemorrhoids are diagnosed in such patients. The fight against illnesses with such consequences is significantly complicated. Since it is now not enough to get rid of the problems with the chair. In this situation, a gastroenterologist treats hemorrhoids, as well as the main problem, ignored for a long time. That is why you should not postpone the visit to the doctor, even if it is inconvenient to voice the doctor "ugly" symptoms.
The value of this body for a person is enormous. The liver performs over 500 different functions in the body. And, unfortunately, until today it has not yet been possible to artificially reproduce its activities.
Therefore, any pathology is a serious reason to consult a doctor. You can start visiting the clinic with a therapist. However, you should know that it is the gastroenterologist that treats the liver.
The most common:
- Different types of hepatitis. It is an inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be chronic or acute. As a rule, these diseases are characterized by viral nature. At present, there are six types - hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G. The disease becomes chronic if the inflammation of the liver lasts for six months.
- Cirrhosis of the liver.
Ailments of the gallbladder and ducts
This organ has an important function in the digestive process. The bladder supports and regulates the pressure of bile in the ducts, promotes the digestion and absorption of fats, and participates in the absorption of vitamins by the body. Its role in suppressing putrefactive microflora in the intestinal cavity is invaluable.
A timely appeal to a gastroenterologist with various pathologies of the gallbladder and ducts can be successfully treated in a conservative way. This makes it possible to avoid surgery.
What diseases are treated by a gastroenterologist? Often lead to the doctor the following ailments:
- Dyskinesia of the biliary tract.
- Polyps of the gallbladder.
The inflammatory process that occurs in the sebaceous gland and hair follicle is a common pathology. However, not every patient who is faced with this problem knows that it is often the gastroenterologist who treats acne.
After all, the ailments of the digestive system lead to incomplete digestion of food and its stagnation. As a result, large amounts of toxins accumulate in the digestive tract. They enter the blood. It is known that the skin performs an excretory function in the body. Therefore, the accumulated toxins, leaving through its cover, provoke the occurrence of acne.
A rash may be a symptom of the following ailments and conditions:
- irritable bowel syndrome
- biliary tract stones
- gastritis (acute, chronic).
Unpleasant disease that cause the simplest. Infection provokes inflammation throughout the intestines. It is most pronounced in the small and duodenum. Much less often changes affect the large intestine or the vermiform process.
The degree of inflammation in the disease may vary. Edematous forms are sometimes observed. And sometimes inflammatory changes in the intestinal walls become hemorrhagic in nature. In this case, erosions and ulcers are often diagnosed.
It is very important to identify the disease in time and not to forget that a gastroenterologist treats giardiasis. The following symptoms allow to suspect the disease:
- pain in the right hypochondrium,
- bitter belching,
- pain on palpation of the gallbladder,
- bitterness in the mouth.
However, it should not be forgotten that all the above symptoms may signal another disease. In this case, self-diagnostics and self-treatment is quite unsafe.
With a prolonged course of the disease, the above symptoms may be accompanied by the following symptoms:
- dirty skin tone
- the appearance of dark "circles" under the eyes,
- increased skin rash,
- furry tongue
- bad breath.
Clinical manifestations of the disease can be neurotic, allergic-dermatic. Due to this variety of symptoms, the diagnosis is confirmed by a gastroenterologist only after conducting a laboratory examination.
Understanding who a gastroenterologist is, what he treats, any person in the event of gastrointestinal diseases, will be able to assess the danger of the situation in time and contact this specialist. Do not forget that there are ills in which the road is every minute. And in some cases, ignoring the symptoms can contribute to the transition of the disease into a chronic form.
Remember, many diseases of the digestive tract are perfectly cured, without leaving any consequences. The main thing is to conduct the necessary therapy prescribed by the doctor in time.
Spectrum of activity
Definitely answer the question: what does a gastroenterologist treat, is almost impossible. His competence is a whole list of organs of the gastrointestinal tract, but quite often he has to additionally cooperate with other narrow specialists.
A good doctor based on the results of a clinical examination may additionally suspect related diseases such as diabetes or even a tumor process. Because of this, he can work with oncologists-surgeons, nephrologists, and even naturotherapists, if the patient’s condition allows him to manage with alternative methods of treatment.
Despite the fact that an experienced doctor can make a diagnosis already during the initial examination, this is not a reason to refuse additional diagnostics for confirmation. For the same reason, you should not think that online counseling, which is currently fashionable among medical professionals at private clinics, will be able to provide detailed assistance. Tips via the Internet or telephone are only assumptions that should encourage the patient to go for a direct inspection, and not a guide to action.
Of particular danger are thematic sites, blogs and even a forum where people share a list of symptoms and possible healing options with others. In no case it is impossible to engage in a similar format of self-treatment, because each organism is individual. Only a doctor based on tests can prescribe the correct therapy.
The following diseases are within the competence of a gastroenterologist:
- diseases of the stomach, esophagus, duodenum,
- diseases of the liver and gallbladder,
- pancreatic diseases,
- intestinal ailments
- problems with the spleen.
Pathology of the mucous membrane of the upper gastrointestinal tract is catarrhal and erosive-ulcerative lesions, often due to the presence of Helicobacter. The latter indicates obstruction of the bile ducts. The doctor also deals with issues of inflammation of the gallbladder, the most striking example of which is cholecystitis in its various forms, and the manifestation of the liver and biliary tract.
No less dangerous disease is inflammation of the pancreas, the development of manifestations of pancreatitis. The disease can progress rapidly and is caused by a violation of the development of pancreatic necrosis enzymes necessary for stable digestion. If you delay with the treatment of pancreatitis, the acute phase will gradually become chronic, and over time the disease completely paralyzes the entire organ. This is confirmed by the reviews of those patients who did not listen to the experts' assurances, having decided to move everything “on their feet”.
Considering the main diseases in terms of imbalance in the functioning of the intestine, it is worthwhile to dwell on spastic, bacterial, ulcerative, autoimmune colitis. It is also not less often for those who wish to consult a gastroenterologist, and later they are diagnosed:
- parasite infection
If you delay with a trip to a gastroenterologist, then in a matter of months, at first a slight discomfort can then turn into a malignant tumor. Because of this, doctors insist that when they detect the first unpleasant symptoms, people immediately find out where the nearest specialist is receiving.
Otherwise, a common illness that could be dealt with in a month can disrupt the patient’s life status for a long time.
How does a gastroenterologist work?
Regardless of which specialist conducts the reception: paid or free, the algorithm of his actions must be kept identical. A primary examination involves palpation and measurements of common indicators, such as pulse and pressure, to create a general clinical picture.
Also, the doctor will review the case history, if it is taking place, and listen to all the patient's complaints. Based on the information received, the patient is issued a number of areas for analysis. And after their results are obtained and the need for additional diagnostics arises, the patient can be sent for instrumental examinations.
If it is necessary to use auxiliary diagnostic methods, many patients have to be examined on a commercial basis. But in this case, you should not feel sorry for the money, because there is a high probability that outdated methods of detecting the source of inflammation will simply fail.
The following modern methods are used as assistants to establish the truth:
- Abdominal ultrasound,
- MRI of the abdominal cavity with and without contrast,
- fibroscopic liver,
- virtual colonoscopy
- retrograde cholangiography.
Sometimes the hospital insists on additional DNA testing. These new generation tests are necessary for suspected genetic abnormalities or rare diseases.
Treatment will be prescribed strictly on the basis of the data obtained, so it often does not match even in those patients who have identical diagnoses, but their overall health status varies. The basis of therapy can be taken the following areas, both together and separately:
- the use of pharmaceuticals
- phytotherapy or similar care options from a naturotherapist,
- dietology and scheduling rational nutrition, lifestyle,
- non-pharmacological treatment methods, such as physiotherapy, acupuncture, laser therapy, pressure chamber, physical therapy.
Sometimes surgery is necessary. This means that the patient will need to consult a surgeon.
When is the time for reception?
Age is not an indication that problems regarding human digestion will not be affected. This means that both newborns and people in advanced age suffer from this disease. Only the spectrum of characteristic diseases of a certain age group will fluctuate slightly.
So, infants usually face dysbiosis, and pensioners are forced to suffer from chronic constipation. Not avoided deviations in the digestive tract of adolescents and young people. They usually come with gastritis and ulcers, which is a direct consequence of improper eating habits. Snacking on the go, “dry bread”, the absence of hot full meals and its replacement with junk food like chips and crackers for a couple of months will be a direct pass to the gastroenterologist's office.
Another factor that allows for a long time not to go to the doctor is a high pain threshold of sensitivity or unwillingness to spend time on consultation. Despite the deterioration in the quality of life, patients tolerate literally until they faint, and are already on reception with chronic forms of the disease, and even with oncology at the last stage of development.
Because of this, doctors advise that it is necessary to seek help for a speedy recovery as soon as any unpleasant symptoms arise. To help sensible patients more likely to receive qualified support, doctors have made some kind of clues. If a person has found at least two or three signs of deterioration of well-being from the list, then this is a reason to enroll to a specialist:
- bitter taste
- belching after eating,
- the smell from the mouth,
- constant heartburn after almost every meal,
- pain syndrome with localization in the intestine, stomach, hypochondrium,
- heaviness in the stomach,
- prolonged nausea
- diagnosing diabetes,
- problems with the chair,
- discoloration of feces and the appearance of impurities (blood and mucus),
- skin eruptions of not clear etiology,
- peeling, dry skin,
- problems with the condition of hair and nails.
Separately, cases are considered when a person has been taking medication for a long time or has received chemotherapy. He needs to consult a gastroenterologist in order to jointly restore the intestinal microflora and heal the defects of the gastric mucosa. Otherwise, severe complications and reduced quality of human life are possible.
Another hidden problem that arises because of a refusal to seem to a gastroenterologist is the inability of the body to fully absorb the incoming food. Because of this, all organs are affected, which in sufficient quantities will no longer receive nutrients.
Against this background, various toxic substances will accumulate in the cells, poisoning the body from the inside. Within a couple of months, a person may experience dysfunction of the cardiovascular and nervous systems. At the same time, there is a decrease in efficiency, deterioration of appearance, decrease in social activity.
But the most powerful blow to the immune system. Because of this failure, even ordinary respiratory diseases occur with complications and relapses.
An even greater danger later treatment is for children. In a particularly deplorable scenario in children, due to the disorder of the digestive system, physical development first slows down, and then there are difficulties with mental and abilities.
Often, to assist adolescents, a specialist simply orders a review of the daily menu if the disease is caught at the initial level. But if this is a neglected case, then an improvement in the quality of food can only be an auxiliary measure, and some cannot do without medicines or even surgery. In order not to end up with this, it is enough just to sign up for a consultation at the first signs of indigestion!
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Specialty: infectious diseases specialist, gastroenterologist, pulmonologist.
Total experience: 35 years .
Education: 1975-1982, 1MMI, San gig, high qualification, infectious diseases doctor.
Science degree: doctor of the highest category, PhD.
- Infectious diseases.
- Parasitic diseases.
- Emergency conditions.
According to the "passport of the scientific specialty" gastroenterology "," her research areas are:
- Epidemiology of diseases of the digestive system.
- Experimental and clinical (intravital and autopsy) morphology.
- Etiological factors - viral, microbial, protozoa, parasitic, medicinal, toxic, mental - diseases of the digestive system.
- Regulatory mechanisms of the digestive organs, ways of their damage in the pathology of the digestive organs.
- The state of the digestive system in other diseases.
- The state of other systems in diseases of the digestive system.
- Therapeutic and preventive methods for gastroenterological diseases.
- Diagnostic methods for diseases of the digestive system.
- Diseases of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum.
- Diseases of the small and large intestine.
- Diseases of the rectum.
- Diseases of the liver and biliary system.
- Diseases of the pancreas.
- Secretion and motility of the digestive system.
Although gastroenterology, as a separate medical discipline, was formed relatively recently, at the beginning of the 19th century, they had been treating the digestive organs since antiquity.
- In Babylonian and Assyrian medical writings of cuneiform on burned tiles, symptoms of the disease are found: abdominal pain, heartburn, vomiting, vomiting of bile, various types of jaundice, flatulence, diarrhea, discoloration of the tongue, loss of appetite.
- In the III century BC. er Erasistratus studied the functions of the digestive organs in living animals and observed gastric peristalsis. He argued that digestion occurs by mechanical grinding of food by the stomach. Opened up human corpses, described the liver and bile ducts. Erasistrat considered the main cause of diseases to be excess in food and its indigestion, which litters blood vessels, as a result, inflammation, ulcers and other diseases occur.
- In the 1st century AD, Claudius Galen, in his writings, gave an approximate description of a stomach ulcer, and also recommended that it be treated with a diet.
What does a gastroenterologist treat?
A doctor who has received a specialty gastroenterologist deals with the treatment of all organs that are in one way or another involved in the process of digesting food and are responsible for the absorption of nutrients that have gotten into the human body along with it.
At this point in time, a gastroenterologist is a highly sought-after doctor.
However, this is not surprising, as a narrow specialist treats well-known diseases, including:
Any pathology of the stomach: ulcer, gastritis, polypous growths, oncology.
Multiple pathologies of the gallbladder: reduced mobility and deterioration of the biliary tract (dyskinesia), pronounced and extensive inflammation of the organ, affecting the process of food digestion (cholecystitis). Do not delay with the appeal to the gastroenterologist, if there are signs of dyskinesia. This disease is somatic in nature and may not only cause irregularities in the process of digesting food, but completely stop it. As a result, a person’s state of health deteriorates dramatically.
Pathology of the spleen. The doctor is able to identify and conduct adequate therapy for cysts and tumors of the organ, spleen abscess and other disorders in its work.
Intestinal pathology. In this case, colitis comes to the fore (the process of colon inflammation), duodenitis (the duodenum is involved in inflammation), and dysbacteriosis, which is formed as a result of insolvency of the human intestinal flora. In addition, the doctor helps to get rid of infection with parasites, enterocolitis and other problems with the intestines.
The consequences of not referring to a specialist of a narrow profile can be quite serious, up to the development of oncological conditions and the death of the patient. The fact is that all of the above diseases are severe, as they involve the digestive organs. Lack of therapy or incomplete treatment process - all this leads to the proliferation of polypous formations and cancer tumors.
How does a gastroenterologist treat?
First, the doctor must give the patient the correct diagnosis. To do this, the patient will need to be examined by a gastroenterologist, after which the doctor will schedule a test, possibly a series of instrumental examinations. When all the results are obtained, the doctor will be able to accurately answer the patient, what his disease is and what are its causes. In conclusion, the patient is prescribed adequate treatment.
The specific therapeutic scheme will depend on what pathology is detected in the patient, what is the specificity of his problem and what is the severity of the disease. The doctor may recommend to undergo a course of drug treatment, herbal medicine courses, as necessary, develop an individual nutrition scheme, make recommendations for lifestyle, etc. In addition, the doctor may recommend the patient surgery, after which the recovery program will be drawn up.
Reception of the gastroenterologist: when to visit this specialist?
Problems with the gastrointestinal tract are relevant for most people, therefore, a gastroenterologist is a specialist who is able to assist both infants (for example, in dysbacteriosis, so common among children), and elderly patients (for example, in chronic constipation). In addition, the category of patients of adolescence and reproductive age also make up a large part of the visitors to the doctor of this specialty. Someone needs consultation, and someone the appointment of treatment.
People come to the doctor, depending on the individual threshold of pain sensitivity. Some people may experience symptoms of a violation of the gastrointestinal tract for a long time, despite the fact that they change the quality of their life for the worse, and some, when even a slight feeling of discomfort appears, go for a consultation. Of course, the majority of patients are those who come to the reception with obvious symptoms of the disease, which they can no longer tolerate. However, attention should be paid to the first signs of a violation of the gastrointestinal tract. That is, when pain or heaviness appears, with regular swelling, as well as with the discomfort of any other plan arising in the area of the digestive organs, it is necessary to seek advice.
The more specific symptoms that may be the reason for referring to a gastroenterologist are as follows:
The occurrence of heartburn on an ongoing basis (after eating)
The pains which localization - intestines, hypochondrium or a stomach,
The severity of the stomach, which appears before the moment of eating, that is, on an empty stomach and its disappearance after eating, as well as a feeling of nausea,
Stool irregularities on an ongoing basis
A change in the color of feces, the occurrence of vomiting - these symptoms require immediate attention to a specialist,
The appearance of lesions on the skin that are not of infectious origin, in addition, the cause for concern should be the desquamation of the dermis, the resulting eczema, the causeless deterioration of hair and nails.
In addition, if a person has used drugs for a long time, has gone through radio or chemotherapy courses, you should consult a gastroenterologist.
Gastroenterologist: diseases he deals with
Taking into account the above pathologies, several other diseases can be noted that are within the competence of a doctor of this specialty:
Gynecological pains of adnexitis type, etc.,
Gastritis of any etiology and form
Chronic diseases of the digestive tract,
Nephropathy, glomerunephritis, pyelonephritis, crystalluria,
If the following organs underwent pathology, then it is the gastroenterologist who should treat them:
Esophagus and stomach,
The intestine is thick and thin, as well as the duodenum,
Gallbladder and its ducts.
The main diagnostic methods used by the gastroenterologist in their practice are as follows:
Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity,
Hike to a gastroenterologist: what happens when it is constantly postponed?
Improper operation of any part of the digestive system will lead to the fact that food will be absorbed much worse. Over time, this, not too dangerous condition, will lead to the fact that the very process of splitting substances from the incoming food will be disrupted. The body will begin to accumulate toxic substances, which will lead to poisoning.
Prolonged intoxication becomes the impetus for the development of somatic pathologies. The patient’s quality of life is impaired, his appearance suffers, his performance drops. As a result, the immune system suffers, with serious consequences. If we are talking about a child, then due to long delays in visiting a gastroenterologist, his normal development (mental and physical) may suffer.
In this regard, gastroenterologists strongly recommend that if there are any problems with the gastrointestinal tract, do not write them off to the poor quality of food, but promptly seek help. In the event that malnutrition does lead to discomfort, the doctor will give recommendations on how to change your diet, so that the digestive system does not suffer from this.
Expert Editor: Pavel Alexandrovich Mochalov | D.M.N. general practitioner
Education: Moscow Medical Institute. I. M. Sechenov, specialty - “Medicine” in 1991, in 1993 “Occupational diseases”, in 1996 “Therapy”.
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