Causes and symptoms of polyps

What it is - the formation of polyps and polyposis is characterized by single and multiple manifestations of benign neoplasms.

They represent tissue growths, towering above the mucous membrane of any human organs, where it exists.

They have their own individual structure, origin and composition of the fabric.

Polyps are attached to the site in a different way - with the help of various lengths of the legs, and also tightly attached to the base with a flat, wide bottom (sessile).

Classification

Neoplasms are divided into types:

1) Inflammatory polyps - appear on the ground inflammatory processes. Attached to the inner shell, may have a different structure:


  • in the form of glandular tissues,
  • fibrillar tissue,
  • fibrous tissue with a vascular structure of smooth muscle tissue.
For example, placental growths are formed on the basis of necrotic pieces of the placenta, and their growth is directed into the intracavitary space of the uterus. The structure of cardiac neoplasms consists of fibrillar, fibrous tissue. The proliferation of young connective tissue during inflammatory processes, can be transformed into a granulation type of polyposis. Proliferative processes of the epithelium form the glandular structure of the formations.

2) Hyperplastic type of polyps - consists of the same composition of cells, on the tissues of which they are formed, as a result of tissue hyperplasia. Belong to the class of benign neoplasms.

3) Neoplastic polyps - formed as a result of violations of cell division. They can be both benign and malignant.

A typical place for the localization of multiple formations is polyposis, the place of regeneration and superregeneration of tissues, as a result of ulcers and gastroenterocoliths.

Evaluation of clinical significance is based on several reasons:


  • determination of the degree of impaired function of the patency in organs,
  • assessment of motor disorder of certain organs, on which depends: the development of acute obstruction, arrosia and bleeding.
Repeated manifestations serve as a trigger for the development of malignant tumors.

Symptoms of polyps

Symptoms of polyps do not always have obvious symptoms and often growths are found during routine examinations, unless there are specific causes expressed by the large size of the formation that interferes with the normal functional activity of adjacent organs. For example:


  • located in the gallbladder, block the flow of bile,
  • localized in the cervix, cause heavy menstruation,
  • the reason for the frequent urge to urinate, may be a tumor in the bladder.
Such manifestations largely depend on the shape and method of attachment of the polyp to the upper shell. The galls on the stem have two formats - short and long, similar to lace. Using such a device, polyps descend into the cavity, occupying any position in it.

Lymph capillaries and blood vessels are located in the lanyard fastener. In some cases, the long leg attachment is twisted and blocks access of the blood supply to the polyp, causing - at best, rejection of the formation as a result of necrosis. At worst - reactive putrefactive inflammation and decay, causing the formation of ulcers and bleeding.

Frequent manifestations are growths consisting of glandular tissues characteristic of adenomas, which arise as a result of metabolic disorders and cell structure. Polyps of this structure, both single and multiple, are more often located:


  • in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract,
  • in the paranasal sinuses and nose,
  • in the upper respiratory system,
  • in the womb.

Nose polyps

Pathological proliferation of the lymphoid tissue of the palatine pharyngeal tonsils leads to the formation of growths on the nasal mucosa - adenoids, having the form of a uviform appearance (see how to treat adenoids). The result of such pathologies can be:


  • severe headaches
  • constant runny nose and nasal congestion,
  • trouble breathing and sleeping,
  • violation of taste buds and smell,
  • allergic manifestations.
Nasal polyposis has no relation to other types of outgrowths (in the intestine or uterus). The reasons are unknown, but there are speculative factors:

  • due to chronic sinusitis or asthma,
  • as a result of aspirin intolerance,
  • effects of cystic fibrosis
  • a consequence of hereditary pathology - Cartagen syndrome,
  • as a result of an increase in somatropic hormone of the pituitary - Young syndrome
  • as a result of the defeat of small vessels - Churg-Strauss syndrome,
  • as a result of manifestations of fat cell rhinitis - nosal mastocytosis.
Depending on the manifestations of nasal growths, adenoids are classified into two types:

1) Anthroological view - manifested in children with one-sided localization. Manifested by parietal thickening of the right maxillary sinus. Growing overlaps the fistula sinus. Possible areas of hemorrhage in places of growth.

2) Etmoidal view - localized in the upper and middle part of the nasal passage. Develops from the mucous membrane of the nasal sinuses. It has multiple and bilateral rapid development. The consequence of such formations is the development of secondary infections. It affects mainly the adult population.

Manifestations of polyps in the internal genital organs

Uterine polyps - A fairly frequent pathology in the class of genetic diseases. Arise due to those or other provoking factors. In the normal state, the upper layer of the endometrium of the uterine cavity during the menstrual period is separated from the walls and goes along with secretions.

In case of any disturbance of the hormonal background, failure occurs and instead of separation, the endometrium begins to grow rapidly, forming nodular, in the form of petals, or pear-shaped growths hanging from the legs into the uterine cavity. Education has various sizes - from the smallest to the size of a large lemon.

In addition to glandular, fibrous and fibrous-glandular polyps, adenomatous formations with a high risk of transformation into a malignant tumor are the most serious danger.

Endometrial polyposis - attributed to serious diseases of the uterus, characterized as an uncontrolled process of forming a large number of benign tumor formations due to the growth of the inner layer of the endometrium - endometriosis. Formations consist of epithelial cells and have a different structure. Located on the bottom and in the corners of the uterus.

Polyps of the cervical canal (cervical uteri) - localized on the walls of the cervical canal, with the direction of growth in its lumen. They can be located in the outer part of the pharynx, where they are well visible or in the upper part of the channel. Formations can be single or in the form of polyposis.

According to clinical manifestations, growths have a different structure:


  1. 1) Glandular structure - consisting of secretory cells of cylindrical epithelial tissue,
  2. 2) Epidermized structure - consisting of a transformed squamous epithelium (metaplastic). Outgrowths with such a structure cause swelling in all epithelial layers, which contributes to the stagnation of blood in the vessels, provokes pain and failure in the menstrual cycle.

Characteristic features

The signs of the disease are directly related to the structure of the outgrowths and their variety. In any department, they manifest themselves in a similar way, and it is possible to determine exactly where the problem is located only during a diagnostic examination. Symptoms manifested:


  • uterine bleeding in before, or after the menstrual period,
  • scanty bloody discharge in the middle of the cycle,
  • for large sizes of education or the formation of polyposis, periodic, severe pains in the lower abdomen are observed,
  • discomfort and pain during intimate relationships,
  • prolonged absence of pregnancy, with regular, without protective methods, sexual relations.
In any manifestations and localization of this problem it is necessary to get rid of as soon as possible.

To date, there are many techniques that allow removal effectively and painlessly, using the method of cryodestruction or electrosurgical excision, the modern method - operative hysteroscopy and many other techniques. Your doctor will help with the selection.

Polyps in the uterus

Polyps in the uterus are often diagnosed benign growths of the mucous membrane, which are usually caused by serious hormonal disorders. They also appear against the background of a variety of inflammatory processes in the pelvic organs, such as cervicitis or cervical erosion. In addition, polyps often coexist with endometriosis. Postmenstrual bleeding is considered the main symptom of such growths. Signs of polyps include abundant uterine menstruation, or vice versa, scanty irregular periods, as well as vaginal bleeding during menopause. However, this pathology is sometimes observed during the normal menstrual cycle. Many patients complain of increasing pain during intercourse. It also happens that no symptoms indicate polyps in the uterus.

For a complete diagnosis of uterine polyposis, ultrasound is used, metrography and the most informative method is hysteroscopy. Thanks to such modern procedures, the gynecologist can easily assess the general condition of the polyp, determine its exact location and size. If growths appear on the background of inflammation, then it is enough to cure the focus of infection so that the polyps disappear without intervention. With the help of a hysteroscope, you can perform serious operations to remove large growths, while complications will be minimal.

Treatment of polyps in the uterus is most often done surgically, which involves curettage. Sometimes doctors use non-surgical treatment by administering modern progesterone drugs. Hormones contribute to the rapid drying out of growths. However, it should be mentioned that with the conservative method, the risk of re-formation of polyps is very high.

Polypas in the nose

Such benign neoplasms, such as nasal polyps, are most common in children under the age of 10 years. Nasal polyposis is the same as adenoids. However, such a pathology may also appear in adults due to the strong growth of the mucous membrane of the pharyngeal tonsils. This fabric is designed to protect the human body from the ingress of various bacteria and viruses.

The main reasons for the formation of polyps in the nose are as follows:

Repeatedly transmitted infectious diseases of upper respiratory tract,

Prolonged lack of fresh air or systematic inhalation of harmful substances

Malnutrition and vitamin deficiency,

Frequent symptoms of nasal polyps are also a rash on the skin around the nose, inflammation of the inner lining of the sinuses, difficulty breathing, problems with sleep, traces of mucus on the pharyngeal wall, lack of taste, poor sense of smell, snoring and chronic sinusitis. Most adenoid sufferers suffer from terrible headaches and persistent runny nose with severe nasal congestion. With small growths, signs may not appear. A conservative treatment of infectious diseases and allergic manifestations rarely leads to the resorption of polyps in the nose.

Surgical treatment of polyps in the nose: usually doctors tend to immediately remove these tumors immediately. When polyps grow in large groups, standard endoscopic surgery is prescribed. To speed healing, doctors recommend regular nasal sinus washings with sea salt. Conducting preventive measures, the use of anti-allergic drugs and specific immunotherapy can prevent re-growth.

Endometrial polyps

Uterine endometrial polyposis is a serious disease that can be described as the uncontrolled formation of multiple benign neoplasms. With such hyperplastic processes, the base endometrium grows, in other words, the entire inner layer of the uterus. This disease most often occurs in women aged 35 to 55 years. In older patients, after menopause, the incidence rate is low. Polypal uterine endometrium has a body and a leg. It consists of epithelial cells. Scalls come in different shapes, depending on their structure and structure.

Specialists subdivide uterine endometrial polyps into the following types:

In women of early reproductive age, neoplasms of glandular structure are usually observed. Whereas, mature patients are diagnosed with either fibrous or adenomatous polyps. It should be noted that glandular-fibrous growths are characteristic of any age categories.

Possible causes of uterine endometrial polyposis include hormonal disorders, trauma to the uterus, prolonged contact of the mucous membrane with the intrauterine device, miscarriages and frequent abortions, childbirth with incomplete removal of the placenta, reduced immunity, endocrine disorders, extragenital diseases, psychological factors, as well as chronic inflammation small pelvis.

Symptoms of endometrial polyposis can be quite diverse:

Menstrual disorders,

Cramping abdominal pain,

White, yellowish or brown discharge from the genital tract,

Soreness and bleeding during or after sexual intimacy

Inability to conceive or miscarriage.

But quite often, this pathology does not manifest itself. Small sized scalls can only be detected on an ultrasound scan, endometrial scraping or hysteroscopy.

The main method of treatment of uterine endometrial polyposis is surgery. Under the control of a hysteroscope, a specialist removes polyps and carefully scrapes the uterine mucosa. Depending on the form of growth and the age of the patient, further treatment and postoperative recovery is prescribed. It should be mentioned that after curettage of glandular and glandular-fibrous neoplasms, mandatory hormonal treatment is indicated in order to regulate the menstrual cycle.

Rectum polyps

The polyp of the rectum is a benign glandular neoplasm, which is attached to the rectal wall with the help of the stem. Outbreaks are often formed in small groups. Such intestinal pathology is found not only in adults, but also in children. In hereditary rectal polyposis, growths in most cases are prone to the transition to the malignant form. According to modern medical research, middle-aged men suffer from this disease at least one and a half times more often than women. Early detection and treatment of these tumors allows you to count on a positive prognosis.

Numerous polyps of the rectum can be classified as follows:

By quantity - single, multiple and diffuse,

According to the morphological structure - on the glandular, villous, glandular-villous, juvenile, hyperplastic and fibrous.

Pseudopoliposis - can be divided into a separate group, this is when the mucous membrane grows as a result of chronic inflammation.

The alleged causes of rectal polyps are chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall mucosa, fecal masses and microtraumas caused by frequent constipation. Along with this, the proliferation of polyps contributes to the adverse effects of environmental conditions, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol abuse. It is also possible to note the dependence of polyposis on diverticular disease and vascular pathologies. Modern experts do not exclude genetic predisposition to intestinal polyposis.

The severity of symptoms of rectal polyps directly depends on the number, size, morphological structure, location and the malignant nature of growths. As a rule, such neoplasms are detected by chance with a full endoscopic examination of the intestine. Very large growths can manifest a feeling of discomfort, bloody discharge from the anus, a sense of the presence of a foreign body in the rectum, as well as tenderness in the lower abdomen and ileal region. Serious disorders of the peristaltic activity of the gastrointestinal tract often contribute to the occurrence of not only constipation, but also diarrhea.

Diagnosis of intestinal polyposis involves regular examinations by a proctologist. Early detection will help prevent malignant growth and will guarantee successful removal of the tumor.

Treatment of polyps in the intestine is surgical - since they are practically not subject to reduction by conservative methods, they are simply removed. Those low polyps are operated transanally. In addition, small growths can be removed by electro excision during a special endoscopic procedure. Very large growths are removed only in parts. After resection, all polyps should be subject to mandatory histological examination for malignancy.

Polyps in the gallbladder

Growing polyps in the gallbladder are pathological neoplasms of a benign nature that appear on the mucous membrane. The growths themselves do not pose a danger to humans, but on average in 15% of cases they flow into malignant tumors without any symptoms.

The most common types of this pathology are:

Adenoma of the gallbladder,

Papilloma of the gallbladder.

The symptoms of biliary polyps are usually erased, patients have almost no complaints, except for discomfort in the right hypochondrium. In rare cases, there is intolerance to a certain type of food. Often, polyps in the gallbladder of a person are detected completely by chance with ultrasound. Endoscopic ultrasonography can be used to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment of polyps in the gallbladder, according to modern doctors, can not be conservative, only surgical intervention is relevant. With extensive clinical manifestations, the entire gallbladder must be removed, regardless of the size of the polyps present. If growths in the gallbladder have a size greater than 1 cm in diameter, and there are several of them, then the organ must be removed immediately because of the risk of malignant transformation.

After a follow-up ultrasound examination, the doctor will decide on the removal of small polyps. Scallions on a leg and with a diameter of less than 9 mm should be monitored once every six months for two years. After this time, if the tumor does not increase its size, ultrasound is performed once a year. In case of growth, the polyp should be operated on. Nares without a leg is under the control of the doctor once a quarter.

Standard surgery for resection of biliary polyps is a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. With the help of a unique endoscopic technology, only growths can be removed, while maintaining a functioning gallbladder.

Cervical Canal Polyps

Special benign neoplasms - polyps of the cervical canal - mainly come from the cylindrical epithelium of the endocervix. The causes of these growths are not clear enough. As a rule, such pathology is diagnosed in patients over the age of 35-37 years. Many experts believe that the development of cervical polyposis is based on age-related changes in the body, hormonal disorders, as well as various stress factors and reduced immunity. It should also be noted that mechanical trauma to the external pharynx of the uterus can serve as a favorable background for growths. Often this type of polyposis develops in combination with cervical erosion and genital herpes.

Symptoms of cervical polyposis are quite pronounced: polyps grow in the lumen of the cervix, manifesting themselves as contact bleeding and white bones. At the same time slack pulling pains are not excluded. Diagnosis of this pathology includes not only gynecological examination and colposcopy, but also cervicoscopy and histological analysis of a scraping taken from the cervix.

According to the histological type, polyps of the cervical canal are divided into:

By structure such growths are:

With metaplastic changes,

With immature epithelium.

Removal of cervical polyps is done by unscrewing the leg of the polyp and completely cauterizing its base, and then the entire mucous of the cervix is ​​scraped. Usually after surgery, restorative hormone therapy is prescribed.

Polyps in the stomach

Polyps in the stomach are small protruding growths on the surface of the mucous membrane. With its shape, such neoplasms on short, wide legs resemble small mushrooms, the size of which does not exceed three centimeters. All benign gastric polyps have a glandular structure. Most often they develop due to chronic gastritis and other inflammations. Gastric growths are divided into groups on several grounds: clinical, pathoanatomical, radiological, etiological and pathogenic.

Polyps in the stomach can be:

By the number - single, multiple and diffuse (more than 15 pieces),

According to etiology - inflammatory, adenomatous, hyperplastic and neoplastic (prone to becoming malignant),

According to the structure - villous, tubular and mixed.

Gastric polyps are almost asymptomatic. They develop without discomfort and can be detected by chance during X-ray examination. In rare cases, patients complain of pain in the epigastric region. When blocking the exit from the stomach, vomiting occurs. When a fairly large polyp begins to manifest itself, a bitter taste in the mouth may occur, and there will be traces of blood in the feces and vomit. In case of serious pathologies, pallor, weakness and cramping pains cannot be avoided when growths are pinched and enter the duodenum.

The causes of such benign neoplasms can be in the hereditary factor, in chronic gastritis and other inflammations of the stomach. In addition, in people older than 50-55 years, the risk of developing gastric polyps increases significantly. It doesn’t matter what exactly such growths have occurred - in any case, they indicate the failure of the entire digestive system.

Treatment of any gastric polyps is based on systematic control, special diet and surgical resection. The necessary control should be carried out using endoscopic and radiological equipment. Exact adherence to the prescribed diet will significantly slow down the development of an adverse process. The question of the need for surgical intervention is solved in each individual case, depending on the severity of the disease. The basic method of treatment in modern medicine is endoscopic polypectomy.

Polyps in the intestines

Polyps in the intestines are a serious danger. They grow on the intestinal walls, blocking the lumen. Neoplasms such as hamartomatny polyps grow from the most common mucosal tissues. Juvenile growths are located in the colon, and adenomatous polyps are a typical optional appendage. The subsequent degeneration of each type of intestinal pathology is directly dependent on the size and etiology of growth. The cause of the appearance of polyps in the intestine are considered only chronic inflammation.

Symptoms of the disease in patients with small polyps in the intestine are practically absent. Sometimes in the presence of large villous adenomas in the patient's feces there are visible impurities of mucus. In severely neglected cases, bloody discharge occurs. Large growths can mimic intestinal obstruction, which is accompanied by cramping painful sensations. In addition, anal itching or prolonged constipation may begin. Due to the large loss of protein with large polyps in the intestine, disturbance of homeostasis is often diagnosed.

Diagnosis of such a dangerous pathology includes sigmoidoscopy and, if necessary, a digital examination of the rectum. The combination of diagnostic methods allows you to identify other related illnesses.

Treatment of intestinal polyps on a thin leg provides for standard loop electrocoagulation, which is performed during a colonoscopy. Galls with a wide base excised. Most benign tumors are easy to detect and remove with the help of a modern colonoscope. All resected growths should be examined for the presence of malignant cells.

If the large size of growths do not allow endoscopic removal, they are localized by surgical intervention. Abdominal surgery is also performed when removing malignant neoplasms. For the resection of a polyp that has degenerated into an early cancer tumor, modern endoscopic techniques are used, and the individual characteristics of each particular growth must be taken into account.

After removing the polyps in the intestines, it is necessary to be monitored regularly by a doctor to avoid recurrence of the disease. And after 50 years, each person is recommended to undergo annual preventive studies of the intestines in order to detect cancer at an early stage.

Education: Moscow Medical Institute. I. M. Sechenov, specialty - “Medicine” in 1991, in 1993 “Occupational diseases”, in 1996 “Therapy”.

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