The number of people suffering from high blood cholesterol increases annually. Often this leads to the development of various cardiovascular diseases, and ultimately to premature death. Taking these cholesterol-lowering drugs will help to avoid such consequences. It is important to remember that only a doctor, diagnosing elevated cholesterol in the blood, can prescribe the treatment necessary in each individual case. Considering that drugs that lower cholesterol have side effects, self-selection of drugs and subsequent self-medication without consulting a specialist can be dangerous.
Cholesterol lowering drugs
Preparations for lowering cholesterol are divided into several types:
- Fatty Polyunsaturated Acids
- Sequestrants of bile acid.
Each type of drug has its own particular benefits, disadvantages and various indications for use. In many respects, the choice of a doctor depends on the general state of human health and on the presence of other diseases in the patient.
First-generation cholesterol statins are pravastatin, lovastatin and fluvastatin. However, now these drugs are prescribed quite rarely. Their main “minus” is a quick excretion from the body. Given that cholesterol synthesis is most active at night, you need to take these statins before bedtime. Simvastatin, a second-generation drug, has the same drawback, but they are still prescribed quite often.
In 2015, the most popular statins of the new generation are atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. They last much longer in the body, and therefore the time of their intake is not so strictly regulated.
This drug works as follows: statins block the liver enzyme, which stimulates the production of cholesterol. For a person with a healthy liver, these drugs are not dangerous, however, in the presence of some serious diseases of this organ, statins are not prescribed.
All statins should be taken once a day, but each drug has a different effect of lowering blood cholesterol. For example, simvastatin tablets in a dosage of 40 mg, atorvastatin - 20 mg and rosuvastatin - 10 mg have the same effect. The maximum daily doses of these drugs are 160 mg, 80 mg and 40 mg, respectively.
Advantages and disadvantages of statins
Among the advantages that this drug possesses, in addition to a significant real decrease in blood cholesterol, the following should be noted:
- The effect of the reception becomes noticeable after 2 weeks,
- Statins are completely safe under regular long-term use,
- Moderate risk of diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Among the shortcomings are possible exacerbations of liver diseases, the need for monitoring “liver tests”, the manifestation of some side effects (nausea, regular pain in the abdomen or muscles).
New generation drugs
All tablets of the statin group have, in fact, the same properties and contraindications, similar in composition and method of use.
The difference between the representatives of the new generation of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin is in the active component that is included in their composition, as well as in the dosage: to achieve the same result, rosuvastatin needs 2 times less than atorvastatin. Consider the specifics of these statins on the example of the most striking representative of this class - Atoris statins.
Tablets for cholesterol with the commercial name "Atoris" contain the active ingredient - atorvastatin and excipients, in particular lactose monohydrate. There are 3 types of this drug: Atoris 10 (1 tablet contains 10 mg of atorvastatin), Atoris 20 (20 mg of atorvastatin) and Atoris 40 (each tablet contains 40 mg of active substance).
Atoris has a number of contraindications in use. Like any other drug in the statin group, Atoris has a negative effect on the liver - it is not recommended to take it for chronic hepatitis, liver failure, cirrhosis, increased activity of hepatic transaminases, muscle disease, pregnant and lactating mothers and people under 18 years old. In addition, “Atoris” should be taken with caution to people suffering from diseases such as alcoholism, arterial hypotension, sepsis, and epilepsy.
Method of use "Atoris"
Atoris take 1 tablet daily without reference to the diet. The main rule is to take the drug at a well-defined time.
It is recommended to start treatment with Atoris with a dose of 10 mg / day. If necessary, the dosage is increased to 80 mg, but it should be remembered that the maximum effect occurs only after 4 weeks of taking this drug, so the dosage can be changed no earlier than 4 weeks later. Be sure to check out the information on the info sheet in the product packaging.
An alternative to taking pills can be natural statins. Here is a list of the most common foods and their constituents whose regular eating is good for lowering blood cholesterol:
|Vitamin C or ascorbic acid: grapefruit, orange, lemon and other citrus fruits.|
|Vitamin B or Niacin: green vegetables, meat, cereals and milk|
|Canadian Yellow Root (Curcumin)|
|Fiber - found in cereals, beans, oatmeal, barley, carrots, apples, avocados and berries|
|Fermented Red Rice Extract|
|Polycazanol - found in sugarcane|
|Herbs: artichoke, basil, yarrow leaves|
Fibrates to lower cholesterol
Like statins, fibrates help lower blood cholesterol. However, unlike the above, this drug has a different mechanism of action: it changes the cholesterol transport pattern at the gene level.
Based on fibroic acid, several types of drugs are produced:
However, only Tricor from the fenofibrate group is widely represented in Russia. Doctors prescribe this drug with a very high level of triglycerides.
Advantages and disadvantages of fibrates
Of the advantages of fibrates, it should be noted that they are highly effective in reducing triglycerides, as well as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, comparing this statins and fibrates, it should be noted that the latter do not reduce mortality. In addition, it is strictly forbidden to take fibrates and statins together - this increases the risk of skeletal muscle damage.
Niacin to lower cholesterol
Niacin (nicotinic acid) is prescribed in large doses - 3-4 grams per day - the only way to reduce cholesterol. The effect of the drug on the body manifests itself quite quickly - already 3-4 days after the start of the intake. You can maximize the effect of Niacin by combining its intake with statins, however, this is fraught with reddening of the face.
The main advantage of this drug is that it quickly lowers blood cholesterol. In addition, thanks to it, the microcirculation of blood in the vessels improves. However, there still remains a risk of problems with the cardiovascular system. The disadvantages include large doses of the drug, which must be taken to achieve a result.
Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors
This type of drug is not particularly widespread in Russia. In pharmacies you can find only two of its representatives: Ezetrol, which consists of ezetimibe, Inegi, consisting of ezetimibe and simvastatin. The mechanism of action of inhibitors is that they absorb cholesterol from the intestine and thereby lower its level in the blood.
If inhibitors are compared with other drugs that lower cholesterol, then they are primarily much more expensive. However, they are not as effective as statins and no evidence of their effect on life expectancy has yet been found. And yet, their main advantage is relative harmlessness, as a result of which they can be taken by people suffering from any serious diseases (for example, liver diseases). Strengthen the effect of cholesterol absorption inhibitors by taking them together with statins.
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
to reduce cholesterol are widely represented by drugs and bioactive additives (BAA). The most famous drugs in this group are fish oil and Omacor. PUFAs operate according to the following principle: they reduce the synthesis of triglycerides and increase the fatty acid oxidation receptors in the liver. However, PUFAs alone are ineffective. Basically, they are taken precisely as a dietary supplement along with statins or fibrates.
Among the advantages of this drug is its high safety. The disadvantage is the extremely low efficiency as a separate drug and the need to combine with others.
Bile acid sequestrants to lower cholesterol
The essence of the action of this drug is that sequestrants bind bile acids, and the body, sensing a lack of these elements, synthesizes them from cholesterol. Due to this synthesis, the level of cholesterol in the blood decreases markedly. There are only 2 drugs of this type in the world: colestipol and cholestyramine, but their use is not allowed in Russia.
The only obvious advantage of sequestrants: this drug is not absorbed by the blood and, accordingly, does not affect the work of other organs. There are much more disadvantages:
- Bad taste
- The effect is visible no earlier than a month later,
- The use over a long period leads to a violation of the absorption of fatty acids and vitamins,
- They are the cause of increased bleeding.
Due to its large number of shortcomings with a small number of advantages, sequestrants are rarely used.
Thus, there are many drugs that help lower blood cholesterol. These drugs differ in the method and mechanism of lowering cholesterol, dosage and side effects. The most effective drugs are statins. They are followed by fibrates, which are prescribed mainly when treatment with statins is unsafe (for liver diseases).
Despite the wide selection of drugs against high cholesterol, only a doctor prescribes them. Self-medication is inappropriate here.
Statin cholesterol lowering
The pharmacological group of statins includes drugs whose main goal is to reduce the release of special enzymes involved in the synthesis of cholesterol.
The following properties are given in the description of these preparations and tablets:
They act as an inhibitor in relation to HMG-CoA reductase, thus lowering cholesterol, reducing its production,
Act even in the presence of concomitant chronic drugs. For example, homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia does not affect the effectiveness of statins,
They have a positive effect on the heart muscle, reducing the likelihood of a heart attack and angina pectoris,
After taking the drugs in the blood, HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A increase,
Unlike many other drugs, statins do not have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
Not always drugs are useful for the body. Statins can cause the following side effects:
Amnesia, malaise, hypesthesia, neuropathy, paresthesia,
Discomfort in the muscles of the back, legs, myopathy, cramps,
An allergic reaction, manifested by skin rash and itching, urticaria, anaphylaxis, exudative erythema,
A drop in blood sugar, which contributes to the development of diabetes and hypoglycemia,
Cholesterol - It is a fatty alcohol, an organic compound that is found in the cell membranes of living organisms.
Often used two concepts - cholesteroland cholesterol. What is the difference between the two? In fact, this is the name of the same substance, only in the medical literature the term “cholesterol"Since the ending"ol"Indicates its relation to alcohols. This substance is responsible for providing strength. cell membranes.
But if the level of cholesterol in the body is elevated, cholesterol plaques form in the walls of the vessels, which, cracking, create a favorable environment for the formation of blood clots. Plaques narrow the lumen of the vessel.
Therefore, after an analysis of cholesterol, the doctor, if necessary, decides what to do with high cholesterol. If the decoding of the analysis for cholesterol indicates its high rates, often a specialist prescribes expensive medications - statins, which are designed to prevent diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is important that the doctor explains that after the appointment, the patient needs to drink such tablets constantly, as suggested by the instructions for use.
But anticholesterol drugs have certain side effects, which doctors should warn patients about, explaining how to drink pills correctly.
Therefore, each person with elevated cholesterol levels must decide whether to take such drugs.
Currently, two main groups of cholesterol drugs are offered: statinsand fibrates. In addition, experts recommend that patients consume Lipoic acid and Omega 3. The following are drugs that are used to lower cholesterol. However, their use is advisable only after examination and appointment by a doctor.
When are statins vital?
Descriptions of most statins contain information indicating the beneficial properties of drugs. Reducing the risk of heart disease, normalizing cholesterol, preventing heart attack - all these effects provide the means of this pharmacological group, according to advertising companies. However, is this really the case? After all, the cost of such drugs is high, so is not information about the benefits of statins an attempt to attract consumers? Are they really good for your health?
Despite the results of studies proving the absence of the harmful effects of drugs on the human body, few experts can confidently recommend statins for use. This is especially true for elderly patients. On the one hand, experiments have proven that drug therapy with statins helps in lowering cholesterol. They also protect against a number of serious diseases. But many experts are of a different opinion, believing that the positive effect of statins is associated with high risk. The likelihood of side effects is too high, which is very dangerous for elderly patients.
In accordance with Russian treatment standards, the use of statins for heart disease is allowed. taking drugs has reduced the number of deaths. However, statistics do not indicate that they are suitable for any patient. Statins should be used with caution by older people and remember: high cholesterol is not a reason for taking them.
At the same time, drugs of this group are mandatory in the following cases:
When secondary prophylaxis is performed in patients with a heart attack or stroke,
With ischemic disease with the threat of various complications,
With coronary syndrome or heart attack,
Coronary artery bypass grafting also involves the use of statins.
These drugs are mandatory for cardiological pathologies, as they extend the life of patients. Avoid the occurrence of negative effects on the body will help constant monitoring by a specialist. A biochemical blood test should be done regularly and when detecting an amount of transaminases exceeding the norm, refuse to take statins. More serious complications are possible, for example, the development of rhabdomyolysis. However, it is found in rare cases.
The use of statins in the presence of diabetes is also not recommended, as well as for women who have not reached menopause. There is no need to take medications if there is an opportunity to choose alternative medicines to avoid side effects.
Russian pharmacies offer the following statins, which have different activity:
Rosuvastatin: Acorta, Crestor, Mertenil, Rosuvastatin, Rosucard, Rosulip, Roxer, Tevastor
Lovastatin: Cardiostatin, Choletar, Cardiostatin
Atorvastatin: Atomax, Atorvastatin Canon, Atoris, Liprimar, Torvakard, Tulip, Liptonorm
Fluvastatin: Lescol Forte
Simvastatin: Vasilip, Zokor, Ariescor, Simvageksal, Simvakard, Simvastatin, Simvastol, Simvor, Simgal, Simlo, Sinkard
Drugs are available in various forms, their cost also varies.
How to choose statins?
The patient himself must decide on the use of statins. In this case, you should first consult with a qualified specialist, who, if necessary, will prescribe a specific drug. It is not recommended to take any action without the help of a doctor. If a biochemical blood test shows the presence of any abnormalities, you need to visit a therapist and an endocrinologist. After all, when choosing statins, the doctor focuses on the gender, age and even weight of the patient, takes into account whether he has bad habits and chronic diseases.
During treatment, it is necessary to adhere to the dosage established by a specialist, regularly taking tests. If the import drug recommended by the doctor is not available due to the high cost, which is typical for most statins, you can always find an affordable domestic analogue. Although this may affect the effectiveness of the tool.
Elderly patients should be careful with the use of statins for gout and diabetes. Often myopathy develops when combined with drugs for these diseases.
It is important to keep in mind that in chronic liver pathologies, it is safe to take low doses of rosuvastatin, which can be replaced with pravastatin. Do not combine drugs with alcohol or antibiotics. A significant advantage of pravastatin is also its low toxicity, which is why it is indicated for patients with muscle pain. A controversial issue also remains the possibility of a combination of statins and nicotinic acid. It is believed that this can cause an exacerbation of chronic diseases.
Why are statins dangerous?
In Russia, drugs were actively prescribed after the American doctors. Coronary artery disease, hypertension - all these diseases were treated with statins. In this case, large dosages were used. However, a study was soon conducted in the United States that proved the connection between honey in the development of many diseases and the use of statins. In 2013, the British Medical Journal published information on their adverse effects on the health of patients. But in Russia there were no independent studies, and specialists continue to actively use drugs of this group.
In Canada, it was found that older patients taking them often experienced rapid visual impairment and cataracts.The risk increases at times in the presence of diabetes.
It was experimentally found that the greatest effectiveness of statins without side effects is achieved in patients who have not suffered a stroke or heart attack. In all other cases, the drugs not only do not prevent heart disease, but also provoke depression, problems in the functioning of internal organs, including the kidneys.
Some facts cast doubt on the benefits of statins:
Drugs can affect cholesterol so that it is below normal, which is more dangerous than exceeding it. This can cause malignant tumors, liver disease, anemia, stroke, provokes suicide and depression.
Statins interfere with the recovery function of cholesterol. Thanks to cholesterol, the body eliminates damage. This is due to the fact that it is one of the most important components in the composition of scar tissue. Also, bad cholesterol is important for the development of muscle mass and the entire body. Its deficiency causes muscle pain and dystrophy.
Lack of magnesium leads to stroke and heart attack, and not excess cholesterol. This hypothesis casts doubt on the use of statins.
Along with lowering cholesterol, the synthesis of many other important substances in the body is reduced. This applies to compounds such as melovanat. He is involved in many biological operations, including the formation of cholesterol.
The action of statins provokes diabetes, which in turn negatively affects the production of cholesterol and contributes to the emergence of other diseases. This reason, according to researchers in Germany, causes angina pectoris and arrhythmia, stroke. This is due to a decrease in the concentration of protein, which is responsible for blood sugar. According to the results of studies, women at menopause are at risk.
There are problems in the brain due to the use of drugs. First of all, statins affect cholesterol metabolism, which affects the liver. At the same time, drugs have a positive effect on blood vessels. However, any influence of chemicals is detrimental to the body. As a result, irreversible changes in physiological processes occur, including mental activity may be impaired.
Side effects of statins are often detected too late.
Change in cholesterol is recognized as an indicator that allows to identify violations in the functioning of organs and their systems. Therefore, it is not always advisable to lower it.
Some scientists, considering elevated cholesterol as confirmation of the presence of serious diseases, stress and other inflammations are identified as causes of cardiological pathologies. A number of countries have long been promoting healthy lifestyles in order to prevent heart problems. Thanks to this, the number of patients with such pathologies decreased, which proved that normalization of cholesterol can be achieved by abandoning bad habits and choosing sports and proper nutrition. So, a healthy lifestyle allows you to avoid taking various medications that have a large number of side effects, and to avoid the development of dangerous pathologies.
Another negative factor from taking statins
According to the results of one experiment, in which 3070 people aged 60 years and older participated, the use of statins provokes muscle pain in 30% of people, which limits their physical activity. As a result of increased muscle pain, patients refuse to exercise, walk less. All these factors lead to overweight and increase the risk of heart disease.
Helps Fibrates Lower Cholesterol
As an alternative to statins, they often resort to fibroic acid derivatives known as fibrates. They act directly on the liver, reducing its cholesterol secretion.Fibrates also affect the amount of lipids, reduce the formation of extravascular deposits. After taking these drugs, the level of both good and bad cholesterol is normalized.
Along with the positive effects, fibrates also have a negative effect, manifested in the form of:
Hepatitis, pancreatitis, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, pain in the digestive system,
Venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism,
Muscle weakness and cramping, diffuse myalgia,
Headaches, sexual dysfunction,
Photosensitivity and allergic reactions.
Often used a comprehensive treatment involving a combination of fibrates and statins. Thus, it is possible to reduce the dosage of the latter.
Most often, fibrates such as:
Decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption
Ezetemib is used for this purpose. It is qualitatively different from its counterparts, actively used earlier, since it does not lead to diarrhea. The dosage should be checked with your doctor.
Most of the daily need for cholesterol is satisfied by the body, the rest is replenished thanks to food.
Normalization of cholesterol levels with natural drugs
Many doctors recommend instead of statins and fibrates to lower cholesterol by the following means:
Omega-3 fatty acids. They are contained in large quantities in fish oil and linseed oil, serve as a preventive measure against stroke, nervous disorders, arthritis. At the same time, the dosage of fish oil should not be violated, since its excess can cause pancreatitis.
Tykveolom. This natural medicine is pumpkin seed oil. Used for the prevention of cerebral arteriosclerosis, hepatitis, cholecystitis, has anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, choleretic and antioxidant effects.
Lipoic acid. It prevents coronary atherosclerosis, an effect on the level of glycogen in the liver. With the help of lipoic acid, it is possible to improve the trophism of neurons.
Vitamin Therapy. The best source of substances needed by the body will be natural products rich in nicotinic and folic acid, vitamins B3, B6, B12.
Supplements. Of these, it is worth using SitoPren - extract of the foot of fir. It contains beta-sitosterol, the composition also contains polyprenols, useful for atherosclerosis, diabetes.
However, dietary supplements may not be effective enough. With the help of statins, it is possible to achieve a greater effect in lowering cholesterol.
Education: Diploma of Russian State Medical University named after N. I. Pirogov, specialty "General Medicine" (2004). Residency at Moscow State Medical and Dental University, diploma in "Endocrinology" (2006).
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Doctors say an increase in blood cholesterol when the indicators exceed the norm by more than a third. In healthy people, the cholesterol indicator should be less than 5.0 mmol / l (for more details, you can find here: blood cholesterol by age). However, it is dangerous.
Few people actually know what cholesterol is. However, ignorance does not prevent the majority from considering it an extremely harmful and hazardous substance to health. Cholesterol is a fatty alcohol. Both in domestic and in foreign medical practice, another name for the substance is used - “cholesterol”.
What is this coefficient? On a general, everyday level, everyone knows that there is "bad" (or LDL-cholesterol) and "good" (HDL-cholesterol) cholesterol. The complex molecules of good cholesterol are too large to be absorbed into the tissues, they are.
Cholesterol is an extremely controversial chemical compound. By its nature, this organic substance is alcohol.Most of the cholesterol is produced by the human body (liver, almost 75%) and in small quantities comes from food: fatty meat, etc. (about 25%). Cholesterol alone is neither "bad" nor "good." On the one hand, this substance is involved in.
Good cholesterol is dense and solid, so on the contrary, like a brush for dishes, it removes debris from the inner surface of vessels. That is why it is safe to say that not only excess leads to negative health effects.
With high cholesterol, it is very difficult to follow the usual regimen that you followed before the disease. It is necessary to observe a certain diet, look for products that contain special substances. Meanwhile, such products are very expensive. Medicines are also not cheap, and them.
Information about "bad" and "good" cholesterol
Cholesterol belongs to simple fats (sterols), is synthesized by 2/3 in the liver, the remaining third enters the body with food. The specified substance together with phospholipids forms cell membranes, is a part of steroid hormones (estrogen, testosterone, progesterone), bile acids and vitamin D3. Cholesterol is also involved in the metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K, F). Sterols serve as energy material for skeletal muscles, they are necessary for the binding and transportation of proteins.
An increased concentration of cholesterol in the blood provokes the formation of fatty (atherosclerotic) plaques that are deposited on the walls of blood vessels. Over time, fatty plaques thicken, narrow the lumen of the arteries, clog vessels. As a result of thrombosis, strokes and heart attacks develop. To reduce the level of pathological cholesterol in the blood, various means are used: tablets, droppers, ointments for external use, etc. Today, there are a huge number of pharmaceuticals that reduce the concentration of total cholesterol in the blood.
Why is he rising?
Livestock products contain a significant amount of cholesterol, especially a lot of it in offal, meat, cream, butter, seafood, egg yolk. Despite this, cholesterol, which enters the body with food products, practically does not affect its content in the blood. You can control the concentration of this element in the body using products rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. These include: fish oil, lard, cod liver oil, vegetable oil (rapeseed, olive, peanut, soy, hemp, etc.). The table below shows high cholesterol foods.
Statins to lower cholesterol
Before taking such drugs, you need to know what statins are - what they are, the benefits and harms of such drugs, etc. Statins are chemicals that reduce the body’s production enzymesnecessary for the process of cholesterol synthesis.
In the instructions for such drugs, you can read the following:
- Reduce plasma cholesterol due to inhibition HMG-CoA reductaseas well as reducing the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver.
- Decrease cholesterol levels in people suffering homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, which is not amenable to therapy with lipid-lowering drugs.
- Their mechanism of action reduces the total cholesterol level by 30-45%, “harmful” - by 40-60%.
- When taking statins level HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein Arises.
- The drugs reduce the likelihood of ischemic complications by 15%, in particular, according to the conclusions of cardiologists, the risk angina pectorisand myocardial infarctiondecreases by 25%.
- No mutagenic and carcinogenic effects.
After taking, numerous negative effects can be noted:
- Common side effects: asthenia, insomnia, headache, constipation, nauseaabdominal pains diarrhea, myalgia, flatulence.
- Digestive system: diarrhea, vomiting, hepatitis, pancreatitischolestatic jaundice anorexia.
- Nervous system: dizziness, amnesia, hypesthesia, malaise, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy.
- Allergic manifestations: rash and itchy skin, hives, anaphylaxis, exudative erythema, Lyell's syndrome.
- Musculoskeletal system: back pain, myositis, cramps, arthritis, myopathy.
- Blood formation: thrombocytopenia.
- Metabolic processes: hypoglycemia, diabetesweight gain obesity, impotenceperipheral edema.
- The most serious complication of statin treatment is rhabdomyolysisbut this happens in rare cases.
Who needs to take statins?
Informing what statins, advertising plots and instructions for drugs indicate that statins - these are effective drugs to lower cholesterol, which significantly increase the overall quality of life, as well as reduce the likelihood of development strokes, myocardial infarction. Accordingly, using these pills every day is a safe way to lower cholesterol.
But in fact, to this day there is no exact information as to whether the treatment of patients with such medicines is really safe and effective. Indeed, some researchers claim that the potential harm and side effects exceed the benefits of statins as a prophylactic used to prevent diseases of the cardiovascular system. Experts are still arguing whether to take statins, weighing the pros and cons. The doctors forum almost always contains a debate on the topic “Statins - Pros and Cons».
But, nevertheless, there are certain groups of patients for whom statins are mandatory.
The latest generation statins must be used:
- for secondary prevention after strokeor heart attack,
- at reconstructive surgery on large vessels and heart,
- at myocardial infarctionor acute coronary syndrome,
- at coronary artery disease with an increased likelihood of a stroke or heart attack.
That is, cholesterol drugs are indicated for coronary patients in order to increase their life expectancy. In this case, to reduce side effects, the doctor should choose the appropriate medicine, monitor the biochemical parameters. If there is a 3-fold increase in transaminases, statins are canceled.
It is doubtful whether it is advisable to prescribe drugs of this group for such patients:
If statins are prescribed for patients with diabetes, they may need additional pills to reduce sugar in blood, since in such patients statins increase sugar. Medicines to reduce blood sugar should be prescribed and adjusted by their doctor only.
Currently, in Russia, the standards for the treatment of most cardiological pathologies include the use of statins. But, despite the fact that medical prescribing reduces mortality, this is not a prerequisite for prescribing drugs to all people with coronary artery disease or arterial hypertension. Their use is not allowed by all people who are over 45 years old, or by all those who have high cholesterol.
It is important to consider the compatibility of these drugs with other drugs.
If necessary, the doctor prescribes other drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases together with anticholesterol drugs: Diroton, Concor, Propanorm and etc.
Diroton(active component - lisinopril) is used to treat arterial hypertension.
Concor(active component - bisoprolol hemifumarate) used for therapy arterial hypertensionheart failure angina pectoris.
List of statin drugs
What drugs relate to statins, and what is their activity in lowering cholesterol, can be found in the table below.
|Types of Statins||Cholesterol lowering activity||Name of drugs|
|Rosuvastatin||55%||Crestor, Akorta, Mertenyl, Roxer, Rosuvastatin, Rosulip, Rosucard, Tevastor, Rosart|
|Atorvastatin||47%||Atorvastatin Canon, Atomax, Tulip, Liprimar, Atoris, Thorvacard, Liptonorm, Lipitor|
|Simvastatin||38%||Zokor, Vasilip, Avenkor, Simvakard, Simvagexal, Simvastatin, Simvor, Simvastol, Simgal, Sinkard, Simlo|
|Lovastatin||25% off||Cardiostatin 20 mg Holartar, Cardiostatin 40 mg|
How to choose statins?
Despite all the reviews about statins for lowering cholesterol, the patient should make a decision about whether to take such medications, but this should be done only guided by the recommendation of a specialist. Important, first of all, not reviews, but the appointment of a doctor.
If a person still decided to take statins, then the choice should not be the price of the medicine, but, first of all, the presence of chronic diseases.
Self-treatment, if cholesterol is elevated, no drugs can be carried out. Treatment with high cholesterol and lipid metabolism disorders is prescribed by a cardiologist or therapist. In this case, the specialist must evaluate the following risks:
- bad habits
- diseases of the cardiovascular system, other diseases (diabetes mellitus, etc.).
It is important to take statins in the dose that was prescribed by your doctor, while it is important to take blood chemistry as often as prescribed by a specialist.
In the event that too expensive pills were prescribed, you can ask the doctor to replace with drugs that are cheaper. However, it is recommended to use original drugs, since domestically produced generics are of lower quality than the original drug and generics that the foreign manufacturer offers.
Those who are interested in taking information about the real benefits and harm of statins from cholesterol need to consider several important factors to minimize the harm of these drugs.
If the medicine is prescribed for elderly patients, it should be noted that the risk myopathiesdoubles if you take them together with medicines for hypertension, gout, diabetes.
In chronic liver diseases, it is advisable to take rosuvastatin in low doses, you can also use Pravastatin (Pravaxol) These drugs provide liver protection, but when using them, you should absolutely not drink alcohol, and also practice treatment antibiotics.
With the constant manifestation of muscle pain or the risk of damage, it is also advisable to use Pravastatin, since it is not so toxic to the muscles.
People with chronic kidney problems should not be taken. Fluvastin Leskolalso should not be drunk Atorvastatin calcium (Lipitor), as these drugs are toxic to the kidneys.
If the patient seeks to lower low-density cholesterol, it is recommended to use different types of statins.
Currently, there is no accurate evidence that it is advisable to take the combination of "statins plus nicotinic acid." When taking nicotinic acid in people with diabetes, blood sugar may decrease, attacks of gout, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract are also possible, the likelihood increases rhabdomyolysis and myopathy.
Statins - what is it and why are they needed?
"Statins" Are drugs (lipid-lowering effects) designed to lower blood cholesterol by reducing the production of lipids (especially LDL fractions) in the liver. They are a highly effective tool for combating systemic inflammation (more about this in the first part articles).
Another source of cholesterol in the human body is the so-called "dietary cholesterol" that enters the body with food - about 20% of the total. The rest of it (about 80%) is synthesized in the liver.
Mechanism of action: statin drugs block the liver enzyme, which is responsible for the creation of fractions of cholesterol (and other fatty substances / alcohols). The full name of this enzyme is “hydroxy-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A-reductase” (HMG-CoA-reductase). By the way, in scientific / medical terminology statins are mentioned as such: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.
Atherosclerosis, plaques, blood clots ...
Cholesterol is of great importance for the normal functioning of every cell in the body. However, it contributes to development. atherosclerosis, creating negative conditions under which cholesterol plaques form inside the arteries.
So, the above-mentioned atherosclerotic plaques block arteries, reducing the flow of blood to the tissues (which are part of the arteries). When they break, a blood clot forms, additionally blocking the artery and reducing blood flow.
- When blood flow is significantly reduced in the arteries that supply blood to the heart, angina pectoris (chest pain) appears or a heart attack occurs.
- If the decrease in flow is caused by plaques in the arteries of the brain, then the "deplorable" result will be a stroke.
- If the reduced blood flow is caused by plaques in the arteries of the legs, then alternating lameness appears (pain in the legs while walking).
By reducing the production of cholesterol in the liver, statins can slow the formation of new plaques, as well as significantly reduce the size of existing ones. In addition, according to scientists, statin drugs can “stabilize” atherosclerotic plaques, making them less prone to rupture. Thus, excluding the risks of the formation of the most dangerous elements of atherosclerosis - blood clots (with rupture of plaques).
Opinions of reputable doctors
Scientists around the world have long recognized the important role of cholesterol in the development of atherosclerosis. Recent scientific studies have shown that active / “aggressive” cholesterol lowering is more effective and beneficial than moderate. Nevertheless, atherosclerosis is a rather complicated process, which includes many more factors than just high blood cholesterol.
For example, researchers found that inflammation of the walls of the arteries can be an equally serious cause for the development of atherosclerosis. So, in addition to such a property as lowering cholesterol, statins also reduce inflammation, thereby additionally (beneficial for the body) affecting atherosclerosis.
Interestingly, reducing inflammation is not the main “task” of statins, but anti-inflammatory effects can be observed already 2 weeks after the start of taking this group of drugs.
Statins I II III and last generation (name of drugs, list)
We present to your attention the table “statins cholesterol preparations” (detailed list, prices - range of initial cost, depending on the form of release / packaging). For a more detailed acquaintance with the medicines you are interested in (instructions for use and safety / contraindications / conditions of administration, etc.), click on the links.
|Statins||Name of drugs||Producing country||Cost from *, (rub.)|
|"Simvastatin" (Simvastatin)||Vasilip||Slovenia||84 - 289|
|Simlo||India||256 - 310|
|Simvakard||Czech||199 - 469|
|Avenkor||Russia||102 - 397|
|Zokor||Netherlands||231 - 365|
|Pravastatin||Lipostat||Russia / Italy||137 - 189|
|Pravachol||USA||not on sale (EU)|
|Lovastatin (Lovastatin)||Cardiostatin||Russia||210 - 296|
|Mevacor||USA||not on sale (EU)|
|Lescol, Lescol XL||Switzerland / USA||not on sale (EU)|
|Atorvastatin (Atorvastatin)||Atomax||India / Russia||*|
|Liprimar||Germany / USA||from 675|
|Thorvacard||Czech||113 - 290|
|Lipitor||USA / Germany||*|
|Tulip||Slovenia||115 - 588|
|Mertenyl||Hungary||523 - 1403|
|Rosucard||Czech||634 - 1498|
|Pitavastatin (Pitavastatin)||Livazo||France / Italy||422 - 1120|
Under what conditions / when are statins prescribed?
Statins are prescribed for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, as well as for diagnostic syndromes of hyperlipidemia / hyperlipoproteinemia (against the background of the development of other diseases). Other "point" goals:
- lowering the elevated level of low density lipoproteins (LDL / ldl) of "bad" cholesterol (polygenic / hereditary hypercholesterolemia) and triglycerides (combined hyperlipidemia),
- an increase in low levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL / HDL) "good" cholesterol,
- slowing down the development of atherosclerosis (narrowing of arteries and blood vessels) in patients with a characteristic high level of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood,
- reduced risk of (primary / secondary) heart attacks (myocardial infarction) or stroke,
- treatment of disorders of blood supply to the vessels of the lower extremities (pronounced symptom: intermittent claudication),
- elimination of the need for surgical procedures / operations in order to open blocked vessels.
Atherosclerosis risk factors include:
- pathological change in cholesterol
(high ldl cholesterol / low hdl cholesterol)
- hereditary predisposition to heart attacks
(most often manifested at a young age)
- age-related changes in arteries
(risks increase: in men after 45 years, in women after 55 years),
- life in constant stress
(people with mental labor and leading a sedentary lifestyle are especially susceptible),
- high blood pressure
(hypertension / symptomatic arterial hypertension),
- overweight / obesity
(especially its form when fat is collected on the stomach / around the waist / "spherical" type of figure),
- gender factor
(up to 50 years, men get sick much more often / women less often, thanks to estrogen hormones / after 50, the situation changes dramatically),
(“Sedentary” work in the office, lack of time for active physical exercises in the daily routine),
(for example, the minimum content of vegetable and marine products in the diet),
(due to a violation of carbohydrate metabolism, which enhances changes in fat metabolism, which in itself triggers the atherosclerotic process),
- bad habits
(excessive alcohol abuse, but especially smoking).
How to take statins? (video)
What to ask a doctor about? (presentation by Professor Ivan Kozlov)
Most people take statins because of their high cholesterol. Lowering cholesterol is a very important event, but the nature of cardiovascular disease is quite complex. As we wrote above, other factors, such as systemic inflammation, can also play a significant role.
According to research 35% of people who have had heart attacks did not have high blood cholesterolbut most of them were sick with atherosclerosis. This means that elevated blood cholesterol is not always the main culprit in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Statin treatment should be aimed not only at lowering cholesterol levels to normal (normal limits, but also at preventing complications of atherosclerosis (angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, intermittent claudication and deaths).
This approach is very important because it helps people who suffer from atherosclerosis (or at risk of developing it), but don't have high cholesterol.
Statin drugs that act as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are an important class of drugs because they significantly reduce the risks of heart attacks, strokes, and also reduce the percentage of deaths.
Statins - side effects / contraindications
In this table you can familiarize yourself in detail with the most common side effects in the treatment of statin drugs.
|Lesion area||Description of anxiety symptoms|
|Gastrointestinal tract:||the appearance of heartburn, nausea (vomiting reflexes), constipation or (vice versa) diarrhea, flatulence (bloating), dry mouth, taste disturbance, poor appetite, gastralgia, cholestatic jaundice, liver dysfunction, increased activity of “liver” transaminases, hepatitis, acute form of pancreatitis.|
|Musculoskeletal system:||myalgia, myositis, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis (in patients taking at the same time cyclosporine, gemfibrozil or nicotinic acid), arthralgia.|
|Hematopoietic organs:||hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and other pathological changes.|
|Sensory organs:||"Darkness" before the eyes, clouding of the lens, cataract formation, atrophy of the optic nerves.|
|Nervous system:||frequent dizziness, “causeless” headache, asthenia, insomnia, convulsions, paresthesias, some types of mental disorders.|
|Laboratory indicators:||increased activity of “liver” transaminases, a high level of CPK activity.|
|Allergy:||the appearance of urticaria, angioedema, toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell's syndrome), skin rash, unpleasant itching.|
|Other "troubles":||decreased (libido) potency, acute renal failure (due to rhabdomyolysis), frequent chest pain, palpitations (angina pectoris).|
The most serious side effects are: liver failure and rhabdomyolysis (damage or complete destruction of muscle tissue). It is definitely worth noting that serious liver damage caused by taking statins is rare. Most often, these drugs cause some disturbances in the liver.
Sometimes poor test results return to normal, even if taking pills continues. But if the test levels have a value more than 3 times higher than the upper limit of the norm, then taking this drug should be urgently stopped.
Tests / tests for liver health should be carried out before treatment with statins, and in the future, if there is even the slightest suspicion of damage to it.
Rhabdomyolysis - A fairly rare but serious side effect that is accompanied by muscle damage. It begins with muscle pain, and then progresses to the death of muscle cells, renal failure, or even death.
This happens most often when statins are used:
- in combination with other drugs, which themselves (with a high percentage of probability) can cause rhabdomyolysis,
- with drugs that prevent the elimination (elimination of the body) of statin substances, thereby significantly increasing their level in the blood.
Since rhabdomyolysis can be deadly, the unexplained pain in the joints or muscles that occur when taking this drug group must be brought to the attention of the attending physician.
Contraindications during pregnancy
Statins cannot be used during pregnancy because of the high risk of serious / unwanted (and sometimes even unpredictable) effects on the developing fetus (to a greater extent - male).
You can not take these pills while breastfeeding.
If you think that you have become pregnant, stop taking it immediately. Use a birth control tool during treatment (i.e. birth control, but compatible with your medicine). Consult your doctor about this. Be sure to inform about plans to become pregnant (if any, in the near future).
Statins and alcohol
Be sure to inform your doctor about alcohol problems in the past (if any), as well as alcohol consumption above the WHO norm (ie, above 40 ml of “pure” alcohol) - in recent weeks / days. For example, more than two bottles of beer per day or 100 ml of vodka / skate (other drinks that are similar in "strength").
Age and geography
The use of statins (1, 2, 3 and 4 generations) is not recommended for older men and women over 65 years of age. As well as residents of Asia (in particular, representatives of the Mongoloid race).
Thyroid, kidney. Diabetes. Low blood pressure Unexplained excessive fatigue / recent weakness / pain in mice and liver. Dangerous allergy to foods / vitamins / nutritional supplements, etc., similar in composition to statin drugs.
There are other reports of disorders of the digestive system, nervous system, musculoskeletal system, as well as blood and sensory organs. From nausea and dizziness, to mental disorders / decreased potency or other impairments in general health.
Symptoms can manifest themselves on the first day, and several years after the start of treatment, but also disappear quickly: (on average) 3 weeks after cessation of pill use.
Statins - Compatibility with Other Medicines
It is very important to know that statins (both good and bad) interact with other drugs. The first factor: a negative effect on the enzymes responsible for the elimination of statin substances in the liver (i.e., elimination of their spent / already unnecessary amount).
Liver enzymes (in particular, cytochrome P-450) are responsible for removing all statins from the body, with the exception of Pravastatin and Rosuvastatin.
Thus, drugs that block the action of these liver enzymes increase the levels of Simvastatin, Lovastatin, Fluvastatin and Atorvastatin (but not Pravastatin or Rosuvastatin, we recall once again) in the blood and can lead to development rhabdomyolysis.
We present to your attention a list of drugs that block the above enzymes:
- Protease inhibitors, such as Indinavir (Crixivan), Ritonavir (Norvir, used to treat AIDS)
- Erythromycin (E-Mycin)
- Itraconazole (Sporanox)
- Clarithromycin (Biaxin)
- Telithromycin (Ketek)
- Cyclosporin (Sandimmune)
- Boceprevir (Victrelis)
- Teleprevir (Incivek)
- Voriconazole (Vfend)
- Diltiazem (cardizome, dilacore, thiazac)
- Verapamil (Calan, Verelan, Verelan PM, Isoptin, Isoptin SR, Covera-HS)
- Ombitasvir / Paritaprevir / ritonavir and dasabuvir (Viekira Pak)
- Grapefruit juice
Lovastatin and Simvastatin should not be combined with the following drugs:
- Ketoconazole (Nizoral, Ekstina, Holegel, Kurich)
- Danazol (Danocrinum)
- Protease inhibitors
- Amiodarone (Cordarone)
- Amlodipine (Norvasc)
- Ranolazine (Ranexa)
Statins and Niacin
An equally important drug interaction occurs between statins and niacin / fibrous acids, such as Gemfibrozil (Lopid), Clofibrate (Atromid-S), and Fenofibrate (Tricor).
Niacin or other similar preparations containing fibrous acid (also lowering lipid levels) can cause rhabdomyolysis or liver failure, both when used alone and in combination with statins.
Gemfibrozil deserves special attention - it should not be combined with statin drugs at all. Other fibrous acids and niacin are used with caution.
Statins and Cholestyramine / Colestipol
Medicines such as Cholestyramine (Questran) or Colestid (Colestid) bind statins in the intestines, thereby significantly reducing their absorption in the body. To prevent this undesirable effect, statin tablets should be taken one hour before or after 4 hours after taking Cholestyramine or Colestipol.
Caution - Red Yeast Rice!
Statin drugs should not be combined with (now fashionable) red yeast rice, because it contains a chemical substance (in composition) very similar to them. That is why eating red yeast rice with statins can lead to serious side effects, such as myopathy (neuromuscular disease).
1) The level of effectiveness of drugs
The most important criterion is the ability to lower cholesterol and reduce the severity of systemic inflammation, in general.Which statins are the safest and most effective? Currently, these are considered: "Atorvastatin" (Lipitor) and "Rosuvastatin" (Crestor) - drugs of the III and IV generations. Less progressive (but affordable drugs) are: "Simvastatin" and "Fluvastatin" (Lescol) - drugs of I and II generations.
2) Compatibility with other medicines
The next difference: how much they interact with other drugs. For example, the levels of “Pravastatin” (“Pravachol”) and “Rosuvastatin” (“Crestor”) in the body will not be increased by other drugs (ie, those that can be taken simultaneously with statins).
And this happens because liver enzymes that eliminate Pravastatin and Rosuvastatin are not blocked by many types of drugs that can do this. In fact, this prevents an increase in the levels of Pravastatin and Rosuvastatin (which with a negative effect can be fraught with increased toxicity that causes myopathy - muscle inflammation).
Other cases: According to FDA research, patients taking Verapamil (Calan, Verelan, Verelan PM, Isoptin, Isoptin SR, Covera-HS) and Simvastatin (Zocor) experienced myopathy 10 times more often than patients receiving only Simvastatin, because Verapamil seriously increased the level of the latter in the blood.
3) Frequency of side effects
Statins differ in the frequency with which they cause a severe type of myopathy called rhabdomyolysis. Therefore, a drug such as "Tsevivastatin" (Baycol) was generally discontinuedbecause it caused the above disease 100 times more often than other statins.
In other cases, this disease most often develops in patients taking statin tablets with drugs that themselves can cause rhabdomyolysis or other drugs that increase the concentration of statin substances in the blood plasma.
The dangers and benefits of statins
The question of the advantages and disadvantages of this class of drugs has recently reached a hot spot, the same during the "cholesterol" fever (back in the 80s). When the most important, arch-useful element of our body - cholesterol, was declared the enemy of humanity No. 1. Hundreds of pages about the dangers of cholesterol appeared on the pages of newspapers and magazines. They hung the label of the killer.
Unfortunately, human nature is mercantile. The reason for all the bad events in the world is an elementary thirst for profit. So in our case, many foreign (especially American) pharmaceutical companies invested millions in journalists so that they colorfully paint on the dangers of cholesterol and the incomparable benefits of using statins.
Nowadays, a different situation. You can find articles about the great conspiracy. Stories that somewhere in secret laboratories they develop viruses in order to later sell a miracle for huge money - medicines for them. These are all fairy tales, but statins, indeed, can bring both harm and health benefits. Like a regular knife, which is indispensable in the kitchen, but at the same time can be a weapon. It all depends on which hands will fall.
Studies on the effects of statins on the body
Cardiologists used to prescribe statins for people suffering from coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension, and having low risks of cardiovascular pathologies.
Currently, the attitude to this type of drugs has changed for some specialists. Although in Russia so far no full-fledged independent studies of the effects of statins on the body have been conducted.
Meanwhile, Canadian scientists claim that after using statins, the risk cataracts in patients increased by 57%, and provided that the person suffered diabetes, - by 82%. Such alarming data were confirmed by statistical analysis.
Specialists analyzed the results of fourteen clinical studies that were conducted to study the effect of statins on the body. Their conclusion was the following: when taking this type of medicine, the likelihood of strokes and heart attacks decreases, but given the serious side effects, they are not prescribed to those people who have not previously suffered strokes or heart diseases. According to researchers, people who regularly take such medications develop the following side effects:
But on the whole, there are different points of view on whether these drugs are harmful or relatively safe.
- Scientists from Germany proved that with low cholesterol, the likelihood of developing cancer, liver diseases and a number of serious illnesses, as well as early mortality and suicide, thereby confirming that low cholesterol is more dangerous than high.
- Researchers from the USA claim that heart attacks and strokes not due to high cholesterol, but because of low levels of magnesium in the body.
- Statins can suppress the important function of cholesterol, which restores disorders in the tissues of the body. In order for the muscle mass to grow in the body, and for its normal activity as a whole, low-density fat cells, that is, “bad” cholesterol, are needed. If a deficiency is noted, it may manifest myalgia, muscular dystrophy.
- When taking such drugs, cholesterol production is suppressed, respectively, and production mevalonate, which is not only a source of cholesterol, but also a number of other substances. They perform important functions in the body, so their deficiency can trigger the development of diseases.
- This group of drugs increases the likelihood of developing diabetes, and this disease leads to an increase in cholesterol. Various sources claim that if you take statins for a long time, the risk of diabetes is from 10 to 70%. Under the influence of these drugs in the cell, the concentration of the GLUT4 protein, which is responsible for the level of glucose in the blood, decreases. British researchers have shown that taking such medications increases the risk of diabetes in women after a menstrual pause by 70%.
- Negative side effects develop slowly, respectively, the patient may not immediately notice this, which is dangerous with prolonged use.
- When using statins, an effect on the liver is noted. Those who are obese or lead a sedentary lifestyle, note for some period an improvement in the state of the vessels. But over time, complex processes in the body are disrupted, which can lead to a deterioration in mental processes, especially in people in old age.
When a person under the age of 50 has an elevated level of cholesterol, this indicates that serious disorders develop in the body that need to be treated. In some countries, programs are being introduced at the national level that promote lowering cholesterol by promoting an active lifestyle, changing dietary principles, quitting nicotine addiction, and using statins.
As a result, in many countries this method “worked”: mortality from cardiovascular diseases has significantly decreased. Nevertheless, there is an opinion that quitting smoking, physical activity and changing the menu is a better way to prolong life than the use of drugs that have contraindications, side effects.
Statins for elderly patients
Among the arguments in favor of the fact that older people should take statins only after careful weighing of the harm and benefits, we can recall the study, which was attended by more than 3 thousand people over the age of 60 who drank statin drugs. Approximately 30% noted the manifestation of muscle pain, as well as a decrease in energy, high fatigue, weakness.
Muscle pain is most severe in those who have just started taking such medications. As a result, this condition reduces the intensity of physical activity - it is difficult for people to exercise, to walk, which ultimately leads to an increased risk of developing strokes and heart attacks. In addition, in a person with little movement, body weight begins to gradually increase, which is also a risk of cardiovascular disease.
Fibrates: what is it?
Preparations fibratesalso used to lower cholesterol. These medicines are derivatives. fibroic acid. They bind to bile acid, thereby reducing the active production of cholesterol by the liver.
Fenofibrates lower the level of medication lipids, which, in turn, leads to lower cholesterol. According to clinical studies, the use of fenofibrates lowers cholesterol by 25%, triglycerides - by 40-50%, and also increases the level of so-called "good" cholesterol by 10-30%.
Instructions for the use of fenofibrates, ciprofibrates indicate that with high cholesterol, these drugs reduce the amount of extravascular deposits, as well as lower cholesterol and triglycerides in patients with hypercholesterolemia.
The list of fenofibrates:
- Exlip 200,
But, before you buy and take such medicines, it should be borne in mind that their use leads to the manifestation of certain side effects. As a rule, a variety of digestive disorders are most often manifested: flatulence, dyspepsia, diarrhea, vomiting.
The following side effects are noted after taking fenofibrates:
- Digestive system: pancreatitis, hepatitis, vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, flatulence, the appearance of gallstones.
- Musculoskeletal system: muscle weakness, rhabdomyolysis, diffuse myalgia, myositis, cramping.
- Nervous system: headache, sexual dysfunction.
- Heart and blood vessels: pulmonary embolism, venous thromboembolism.
- Allergic manifestations: skin itching and rash, photosensitivity, hives.
The combination of statins with fibrates is practiced to reduce the dosage and, accordingly, the negative manifestations of statins.
Medications that lower intestinal cholesterol absorption
Medicine Ezetimibe(Ezetrol) Is a new lipid-lowering drug that reduces the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine. In addition, Ezetimibe (Ezetrol) does not provoke the development of diarrhea. You need to take 10 mg of medication per day. But it is important to consider that the body produces up to 80% of cholesterol, and only about 20% of it is ingested with food.
All other medicines
Your doctor may recommend taking dietary supplements (BAA).
However, natural remedies such as Omega 3, Tykveol, linseed oil, lipoic acid lower cholesterol slightly.
It should be borne in mind that dietary supplements are not drugs, therefore, such drugs are inferior to statin drugs in terms of the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
The list of dietary supplements that are used for this purpose and contain natural components:
Tablets containing fish fat (Omega 3, Oceanol, Omacor) are recommended for use by people who seek to lower cholesterol. Fish oil protects the body from the development of diseases of blood vessels and the heart, as well as depression and arthritis. But you need to drink fish oil very carefully, since taking it increases the risk chronic pancreatitis.
Pumpkin seed oil is indicated for those suffering cholecystitis, atherosclerosis brain vessels hepatitis. The tool provides a choleretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective effect.
This tool is endogenous antioxidantIt is used for the prevention and treatment of coronary atherosclerosis.A positive effect of the drug on carbohydrate metabolism is noted. When it is taken, trophism of neurons improves, and glycogen levels in the liver increase.
Vitamins contribute to the normalization of cholesterol, increase hemoglobin etc. The body needs vitamin b12 and AT 6, folic acid, A nicotinic acid. It is very important that these are natural vitamins, that is, it is important to eat those foods that contain these vitamins.
BAA is an extract of the foot of fir, it contains beta-sitosterol, polyprenols. Should be taken when hypertension, atherosclerosis, high triglycerides and cholesterol.
Sequestrants of bile acids(Wheel makersetc.) are medicines that are used in complex treatment as an auxiliary component for lowering cholesterol. They inhibit its synthesis in plasma.
Ciprofibrate Lipanor - inhibits the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver, lowers its level in the blood, reducing the level of atherogenic lipoproteins.
Thus, the list of cholesterol medications is currently very wide. But if a patient practices lowering blood cholesterol with drugs, he must remember that drugs that lower cholesterol cause a number of side effects. Of course, when prescribing drugs for high cholesterol, the doctor takes this into account, and also informs the patient about contraindications for lowering cholesterol.
But still, medications to lower blood cholesterol must be taken, combining such treatment with dietas well as active lifestyle. It is advisable to take drugs that lower blood cholesterol, the latest generation, as their manufacturer improves drugs.
You can reduce blood cholesterol with pills to certain levels. But cholesterol-lowering tablets should be used only in cases where there is a high risk of manifestation of cardiovascular disease. There are groups of patients who need to take pills for cholesterol in the blood. In other cases, before you start taking pills to lower cholesterol, you should consult a doctor who weighs the benefits and harms of such treatment.
In order to live a full life, in addition to taking pills, you need to eat right, play sports. If cholesterol is very high, it is better to immediately change the lifestyle, which will contribute to its normalization without additional treatment. You can also practice taking folk remedies, which include honey and other healthiest components that allow you to "clean" the body. How and how many times a day to consume such funds, a specialist will tell.