Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that is part of almost all living organisms. It should be understood that only 20-30% of it enters the body with food. The rest of cholesterol (synonymous with cholesterol) is produced by the body independently. Therefore, the reasons for the increase in blood levels can be many.
Cholesterol is elevated - what does it mean?
Doctors talk about increasing the level of cholesterol in the blood when the figures exceed the norm by more than a third. In healthy people, cholesterol should be less than 5.0 mmol / l (in more detail you can find out here: the rate of cholesterol in the blood by age). However, not all the fat-like substance contained in the blood is dangerous, but only low-density lipoproteins. They pose a threat due to the fact that they tend to accumulate on the walls of blood vessels and, after a certain time period, to form atherosclerotic plaques.
A thrombus (consisting mainly of platelets and blood proteins) gradually begins to form on the surface of the growth inside the vessel. He makes the vessel even narrower, and sometimes a small piece comes off the blood clot, which moves along with the blood flow through the vessel to the point where the vessel narrows completely. There's a blood clot and stuck. This leads to the fact that the blood circulation is disturbed, from which a certain organ suffers. Often, the arteries of the intestines, lower extremities, spleen and kidneys are subject to blockage (at the same time, doctors say that an organ has been infarcted). If the vessel that feeds the heart suffers, then the patient has a myocardial infarction, and if the brain vessels, then a stroke.
The disease progresses slowly and imperceptibly to humans. A person can feel the first signs of a lack of blood supply to an organ only when the artery is more than half clogged. That is, atherosclerosis will be in a progressive stage.
How exactly the disease manifests itself will depend on where cholesterol began to accumulate. If the aorta becomes blocked, the person will begin to experience symptoms of hypertension. He also faces an aortic aneurysm and death if appropriate therapeutic measures are not taken in time.
If cholesterol clogs the aortic arches, then in the end it will lead to the fact that the blood supply to the brain is disturbed, it causes symptoms such as fainting, dizziness, and then a stroke develops. If the coronary arteries of the heart are blocked, the result is coronary artery disease.
When a blood clot forms in the arteries (mesenteric) that feed the intestines, the tissues of the intestine or mesentery may die. Also, abdominal toad is often formed, causing abdominal cramps, bloating and vomiting.
When the renal arteries are affected, it threatens a person with arterial hypertension. Violation of the blood supply to the vessels of the penis leads to sexual dysfunction. Violation of the blood supply to the lower extremities leads to the appearance of pain in them and developing lameness, which is called intermittent.
As for statistical data, most often an increase in the level of cholesterol in the blood is observed in men over 35 and in women who enter menopause.
So, elevated blood cholesterol can only mean one thing: serious disturbances occur in the body, which, if not taken the necessary measures, will ultimately lead to death.
What is dangerous high cholesterol?
There are certain threats to human health if he has a persistent increase in blood cholesterol. Many do not take this as a cause for concern. However, this fact should not be left without attention, as it leads to the emergence of a number of cardiovascular pathologies, which ultimately become the causes of heart attacks and strokes.
Even in spite of the fact that there are a huge number of drugs and a wide variety of methods for treating diseases of the heart and blood vessels, these pathologies rank first among all diseases leading to death among the population of the whole world. The World Health Organization provides clear numbers: 20% of strokes and 50% of heart attacks are due to the fact that people have elevated cholesterol levels. However, do not despair if a high level of this substance in the blood has been identified, since cholesterol can and must be controlled.
However, in order to realistically assess the risk of a risk, it is necessary to clearly understand what constitutes dangerous and harmless cholesterol:
LDL is the so-called “bad” cholesterol. It is the increase in its level that threatens the clogging of arteries, and as a result there is a threat of the formation of strokes and heart attacks. Therefore, it is necessary to strive to ensure that its indicators in the blood do not exceed the mark of 100 mg / dl. However, these are indicators for an absolute healthy person. If a history of heart disease, then reduce the level of LDL should be at least 70 mg / dl,
“Good” cholesterol reduces the “bad” content. He is able to join the "bad" cholesterol and transport it to the liver, where after certain reactions it will naturally be removed from the human body,
Another type of unhealthy fat is called triglycerides. They also circulate in the blood and, like LDL, increase the risk of developing deadly diseases. Their blood levels should not exceed 50 mg / dL.
Every person’s cholesterol circulates in the bloodstream, and if the level of “bad” fats starts to rise, then it, or rather its surplus, tend to be deposited on the walls of blood vessels, narrowing the arteries over time, so blood cannot pass through them as before. And their walls become fragile. Plaques form around which a blood clot forms. It disrupts the blood supply of an organ and tissue ischemia occurs.
The risks that elevated cholesterol will not be diagnosed on time are as high as the number of deaths resulting from this process. This is due to the fact that elevated cholesterol manifests itself very late in the form of certain symptoms.
That is why it is so important to pay attention to:
The presence of pain in the lower limbs when walking,
The appearance of a xanthan, or yellow spots on the skin,
Pain of constricting character in the region of the heart.
If there is at least one of these signs, it is necessary to contact a doctor as soon as possible and pass the appropriate tests.
6 myths about high cholesterol
However, you should not get too carried away with thoughts about cholesterol for no particular reason. Many people are so sure that it is a deadly threat, so they are trying by all available means to reduce the level of its consumption with food. To do this, use a variety of diets, involving the exclusion from the diet of fat-containing products. However, doing so is not quite right, because as a result, you can inflict even greater harm on your health. In order to maintain the level of cholesterol in the norm, and at the same time not cause damage to your own body, you need to familiarize yourself with the most common myths.
6 myths about high cholesterol:
Cholesterol can get inside the body only with food. In fact, this is a common misconception. On average, only 25% of these fats enter the blood from the outside. The rest of it is produced by the body independently. Therefore, even if you try to reduce the level of these fats with the help of various diets, it is still impossible to “remove” its essential proportion. Doctors recommend adhering to a cholesterol-free diet not for the purpose of prevention, but only for medicinal purposes, when the level of these fats really goes off scale. A grocery set that eliminates excess cholesterol should be free from hard cheeses, high-fat milk, and pork. In addition, the damage is caused by palm and coconut oil, which is replete with ice cream, pastries and almost all pastries.
Any cholesterol is harmful to human health. However, it is not. One, namely LDL - can really lead to serious diseases, and another type of cholesterol, namely HDL, on the contrary, serves to neutralize the threat. In addition, "harmful" cholesterol is dangerous only if its level really exceeds the norm.
A cholesterol level exceeding the norm leads to the development of diseases. In fact, no disease can be caused by high cholesterol. If the figures are too high, then you should pay attention to the reasons for this. It can be a signal of pathology of the kidneys, liver, thyroid gland and other organs or systems. Not cholesterol is the culprit of heart attacks and strokes, but poor nutrition, frequent stress, lack of exercise and bad habits. Therefore, it is useful to know that triglycerides in the blood and total cholesterol should not exceed the levels of 2.0 and 5.2 mmol per liter, respectively. The level of high and low density cholesterol should not be higher than 1.9 and 3.5 mmol per liter. If low-density fats have overestimated performance, and high density, on the contrary, are low, then this is the most dangerous signal of trouble in the body. That is, the "bad" cholesterol prevails over the "good".
The most serious danger signal is an increase in blood cholesterol levels. This is another common myth. It is much more dangerous to learn that it is the triglyceride level that is overvalued.
Cholesterol reduces longevity. Most people believe that with a lower level of total cholesterol, the number of years lived increases significantly. However, in 1994, studies were conducted, proving that this is not an absolute truth. So far, no more or less convincing argument in favor of this common myth is available.
With the help of drugs can reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood. This is not entirely true, since statins are extremely harmful to the body. But there are natural products, consuming which in food, it is possible to achieve the reduction of exaggerated indicators. For example, we are talking about nuts, olive oil, ocean fish and some others.
To reduce cholesterol levels will be adequate physical activity:
First, regular exercise helps the body remove fat that has entered the bloodstream with food. When “bad” lipids do not linger in the bloodstream for a long time, they do not have time to settle on the walls of blood vessels. It has been proven that running contributes to the removal of fat derived from products. It is the people who regularly run that are least susceptible to the formation of cholesterol plaques,
Secondly, regular exercise, gymnastics, dancing, prolonged exposure to fresh air, and regular body loads can keep muscle tone, which positively affects the state of the vessels,
Especially important are walks and regular exercise for the elderly. Nevertheless, you should not strain too much, as an increase in the pulse can also negatively affect the health of the person in his advanced years. In all it is necessary to observe the measure, and in the fight against excess cholesterol, too.
Here are 4 more extremely helpful tips to help you lower your bad cholesterol:
It is necessary to give up bad habits. Smoking is one of the most common factors that impair human health. All organs, without exception, suffer from it, moreover, the risk of atherosclerosis increases,
As for alcohol, in reasonable doses, it can even help fight cholesterol deposits. But it is impossible to exceed a mark in 50 grams for strong drinks and in 200 grams for low alcohol. However, this preventive method is not for everyone. In addition, some doctors strongly oppose the use of alcohol even in small doses,
Replacing black tea with green can reduce cholesterol by 15%. The substances contained in it contribute to the fact that the walls of capillaries are strengthened and the level of harmful lipids decreases. The number of HDL, on the contrary, increases,
Consumption of some fresh juices can also be a preventive measure in the fight against cholesterol blocks. However, they must be taken correctly and in a certain dosage. In addition, not every juice has a beneficial effect on the body. Among those that really work: celery juice, carrot, beetroot, cucumber, apple, cabbage and orange.
In the fight against high cholesterol can help diet, in which some foods must be completely eliminated, and the consumption of some reduced to the minimum amount. It is important that a person does not consume more than 300 mg of cholesterol per day along with food. Most of this substance in the brain, kidney, caviar, egg yolk, butter, smoked sausages, mayonnaise, meat (pork, beef, lamb). If these products contribute to the fact that the level of cholesterol in the blood will rise steadily upwards, then there are those who, on the contrary, lower it.
In particular, it is important that the diet necessarily present:
Mineral waters, vegetable and fruit juices, but only those that were squeezed from fresh fruits,
Oils: olive, sunflower, corn. Moreover, they should be, if not a complete alternative, then at least a partial replacement of butter. It is olive oil, as well as avocados and nuts that contain such oils that help to reduce the level of bad cholesterol,
Meat used in the diet of a person with elevated cholesterol should be lean. These are types of animal products such as veal, rabbit, and poultry meat, which must first be removed from the skin,
Cereals. Do not forget about whole grains, in particular, wheat, oats and buckwheat,
Fruits. On the day you need to eat at least 2 servings of different fruits. Although the more there are, the faster the level of cholesterol in the blood will decrease. Citrus fruits are especially helpful. In particular, it was found that pectin contained in the pulp and peel of a grapefruit allows, in just two months of regular consumption, to significantly lower cholesterol levels, up to 7%,
Legumes Their main weapon in the fight against excess cholesterol is the high content of cellulose soluble in water. It is she who is able to naturally remove fat-like substance from the body. A similar effect can be achieved if you take inside the bran, both corn and oat,
Sea fish fatty varieties. Fatty varieties of fish containing omega 3 come to the aid of people suffering from high cholesterol
Garlic. It naturally acts on cholesterol in terms of reducing its blood levels.However, there is one nuance - it is necessary to consume it fresh, without preliminary heat treatment.
In addition to such methods as increasing physical activity, maintaining a healthy lifestyle and eating healthy foods, a person with elevated cholesterol can be offered medication, among them:
Avenkor, Vasilip, Simvastatin, Simvastol, Simgal and other statins. The active substance in each of these drugs is one thing - simvastatin. However, it is necessary to be extremely careful when taking these medicines, as they have a large number of side effects, including stopping mevalonate products. It is this substance that is the precursor of cholesterol in the body. But besides this, mevalonat performs a number of other equally important functions. If its level falls, the adrenal glands may be disrupted. Therefore, when taking drugs from the group of statins, patients begin to develop edema, increases the risk of infertility, the occurrence of allergies, asthma, may even damage the brain. You should not use any medications yourself to lower cholesterol. For this, clear medical instructions and instructions should be given, and treatment should take place under the supervision of a physician,
Traykor, Lipantil 200M. These tools effectively reduce cholesterol levels in patients with diabetes. If you use them on an ongoing basis, it is possible to achieve not only lower cholesterol, but also reduce the complications of the underlying disease - diabetes. In addition, uric acid will be excreted from the body. However, these funds should not be used if there are any abnormalities of the bladder or peanut allergy,
Preparations: Atomax, Liptonorm, Tulip, Torvacad, Atorvastatin. In this case, the active ingredient is atorvastatin. But these tools also belong to the group of statins and have pronounced side effects, despite proven effectiveness, are used with great care,
Another active ingredient from the group of statins is rosuvastatin. Contained in such tools as: Crestor, Rosukard, Rosulip, Tevastor, Akorta, etc. They should be used only if the level of cholesterol significantly exceeds the norm. Preparations of this group of statins are prescribed in small doses.
In addition, after consulting a doctor, you can try to take dietary supplements. They are not drugs, but they can help lower cholesterol. Although dietary supplements are less effective than statins, they have virtually no side effects. Among the most popular supplements prescribed at an elevated level of "harmful" fatty substances are Omega 3, Tykveol, Lipoic acid, SitoPren, Doppelgerts Omega 3. They can be supplemented with vitamin therapy. In particular, folic acid and B vitamins will be useful for people with elevated cholesterol levels. But it is better if a person receives them with food, and not in a dosage form.
Prevention of high cholesterol
Preventive measures aimed at reducing cholesterol levels are the most effective measures to combat vascular and heart diseases.
In order to prevent the formation of cholesterol plaques, the following recommendations should be followed:
Lead the right way of life. Perhaps, most people will think that this is a rather banal recommendation, however, it is the most effective in the fight against elevated cholesterol. Moreover, not everyone succeeds in adhering to a really healthy lifestyle, no matter how simple it seems,
Eliminate or minimize stressful situations. Naturally, to avoid them completely will not work, because if you can not cope with your own emotions, you can, according to the doctor's recommendation, take natural sedatives,
Do not overeat and reduce the consumption of foods that contain large amounts of cholesterol. You should not give them up completely if the level of cholesterol is not elevated, but in order to prevent it you need to adhere to a more or less healthy diet,
Hypodynamia is another “friend and ally” of high cholesterol. The less a person moves, the greater his risk of forming cholesterol plaques in the vessels. That is why regular exercise on the body is so important.
Rejection of bad habits . Alcoholism and smoking and without cholesterol have a detrimental effect on all organs of the human body. And subject to increasing cholesterol, the risks of deaths from heart attacks and strokes increase several times,
Regular visits to the doctor and donate blood to determine the level of cholesterol in it. This is especially true for men over 35 and for women who entered menopause. It is these people who have high risks of forming cholesterol plaques,
It is necessary to monitor its own weight. Although it does not directly affect cholesterol, however, diseases caused by obesity can be a factor that prompted an increase in cholesterol levels
Elevated cholesterol is a reason to look for problems and malfunctions in the body. It is always worth remembering that a very small part of cholesterol comes from food. Therefore, if its level is growing, and a person sticks to a healthy menu, then it is worth contacting a specialist for the identification of associated diseases.
According to most doctors, raising cholesterol is the cause of inattention to their own health and lifestyle. In order to avoid the formation of cholesterol plaques, it is not enough just to restrict certain foods from the menu. The approach should be comprehensive, and you need to start with a way of life.
In addition, it is always important to remember that the disease is easier to prevent than to cure it later. Moreover, drugs to reduce cholesterol in the blood have a lot of side effects.
Education: Diploma RSMU them. N. I. Pirogov, specialty "General Medicine" (2004). Residency at the Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, diploma in "Endocrinology" (2006).
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How and what to reduce blood cholesterol at home
When the parameters go beyond the normal range, it is possible that various problems in the body are associated with the deterioration of the vessels (blockage, narrowing of the lumen). High levels of the substance (hypercholesterolemia) can provoke the development of stroke, myocardial infarction. The heart and the human vascular system are under attack. To quickly lower the level of harmful substances in the blood, tablets are used to lower cholesterol. If the normal rate is raised slightly, you can apply folk recipes, diet.
Not every person is ready for any ailments to start taking medicines, which often have a high cost. In cases when a slight decrease is needed, a cholesterol-lowering diet will help. Reducing certain foods and raising others can normalize cholesterol levels in the blood. Also, help with an increased rate can come traditional medicine with recipes tinctures, decoctions of garlic, herbs and oats.
With cholesterol-lowering foods
Diet with high cholesterol is not rigid, has no special time limits, you can stick to it all the time. You can not eat fried, salty, spicy, alcohol. You can create a diet at your discretion, based on the following permitted products that will help to treat high cholesterol in the blood:
- Complex carbohydrates: macaroni, grain bread, cereals, fruits, vegetables.
- Protein: cottage cheese, white fish, lean red meat, white meat (poultry without skin). Meat dishes should be cooked, stewed or baked, steamed vegetables are good as a side dish.
- Eggs - no more than 4 per day, but if you separate the yolk, the consumption is not limited.
- Sugar - no more than 50 g per day with elevated cholesterol.
- Dairy products can do anything, but on condition of fat content not higher than 1%.
Folk remedies for high cholesterol
There are special folk teas and tools that effectively reduce high cholesterol. To clear the vessels from atherosclerotic growths, reduce the risk of cholesterol plaque formation, remove toxins, popular methods are suitable. The following products are considered the most popular and effective:
- Infusion of calendula. For the treatment of high cholesterol, take it by 30 drops before a meal, the course should last a month (no less).
- Flax seeds. You can buy them at the pharmacy for a small amount. For the treatment of high cholesterol is added to food in whole or ground form.
- Alfalfa. Young sprouts of this herb to use 15-20 blades of grass per day raw. The leaves of the plant can grind, select the juice. For treatment and 3 times a day to use 2 liters.
- Squeeze 10 cloves of garlic through the press, pour 2 cups of olive oil. Let stand for 7 days. Use infusion for treatment as a seasoning for food.
In cases of abrupt changes in the content and the necessary rapid treatment of high cholesterol in the blood, drug therapy is prescribed. There are several groups of drugs that are well suited for treatment. As a rule, patients with high cholesterol are prescribed:
- Statins. A cholesterol medicine that blocks the production of enzymes involved in its formation. According to clinical data, it is possible to achieve a reduction of 60%. The drugs in this group increase the level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which protect the body from heart attack, stroke, and can reduce the number of triglycerides. The most common drugs in this group are Leksol, Baikol, Mevacor. The main contraindication is pregnancy, in other people it can cause upset the digestive tract.
- Fibroic acids help reduce the level of triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins, which cause the development of atherosclerosis with an excess. They reduce cholesterol by prescribing Clofibrate, Gemfibrozil, Fenofibrat.
- A group of drugs that interacts with bile acid. Drugs are prescribed as often as statins. Sometimes taking these groups of drugs occurs simultaneously, which simplifies the struggle and helps cure the disease faster. As a rule, Colestids or Questran write out at elevated rates in order to quickly reduce them.
Which doctor to contact
Elevated blood cholesterol has a negative effect on the work of the heart, the vascular system. The cardiologist is involved in the treatment of these diseases, but he will send him for a complete blood count to confirm. According to him, it will be easy to determine whether a person suffers from high cholesterol levels, so it will be right to make it right in the clinic. To get rid of the root causes of increasing cholesterol, it is necessary to determine what caused this impetus. Doctors can prescribe therapy and ways to reduce them: endocrinologist, general practitioner, cardiologist.
Kirill, 38 years old Heart problems started, he went to a cardiologist, and he said that I had problems with elevated cholesterol. After analysis, it turned out that the reason was the wrong diet. Now I adhere to a strict diet without fried, sharp, salty, I eat sugar a little. It became easier a month after changing the diet.
Nadezhda, 27 years old I was hospitalized with myocardial infarction, the doctor said that the cause was elevated cholesterol. I had to undergo a drug treatment with statins. It became easier immediately, but from now on I have been on a diet for life. The hardest part was to completely give up alcohol, but health is still more important.
Anastasia, 33 years old. I tried to carry out treatment with folk methods, but all these tinctures did not help me. Effective against high cholesterol was just proper nutrition. The diet is not difficult, it is very easy to adhere to, but the fried one is not enough yet. The doctor recommended to drink statins, but I managed the right nutrition.
What is cholesterol and what does it do in our blood
Cholesterol, an organic compound, is a fat-like substance, or rather, natural polycyclic lipophilic alcohol, which cannot be dissolved in water, but easily dissolved in the fats that transport it through the body.
Cholesterol is in the cell membranes and gives them elasticity and strength. When the level of cholesterol in the blood is normal, there are no violations on the part of the internal organs. But as soon as the reference values deviate from the norm, various pathological conditions are noted, which lead to serious diseases of the heart and cardiovascular system.
How cholesterol enters the body and how lipid metabolism occurs
Where can cholesterol come from in the human body:
- 60% is produced by the liver,
- 20% is synthesized by the skin and other organs,
- 20% comes from food.
Cholesterol goes a long way in the body. Synthesis of a substance occurs in the liver, then spreads through the blood and is absorbed in the intestine. In addition to internal synthesis, cholesterol enters the body with high-grade food. The substance is transported to the tissues in the form of special complexes - lipid proteins.
Components of lipid proteins are:
How to diagnose high cholesterol
The level of cholesterol in clinics is checked using lipidograms (or lipid profile) - this is a comprehensive study that determines the level of lipids. It also helps to identify:
- triglyceride level
- low or high density lipoprotein concentration
- the level of apolipoprotein A1, B,
- blood cholesterol concentration.
Indications for lipid profile are:
- pathologies of the heart and vascular system
- kidney disease
- diseases of the liver and biliary tract,
- stomach and duodenum,
- diabetes of the first and second type
- thyroid pathology,
- blood diseases
- malignant neoplasms in the body.
If the study revealed an excess of the norm, they are talking about hypothyroidism, diabetes, kidney pathologies or a tumor in the pancreas.
In the case of deviations from the norm in the lower side during the study, diagnosed fasting or cachexia. Low rates also indicate bone marrow abnormalities, iron deficiency anemia, blood poisoning or chronic diseases that go unnoticed in the body and cause permanent focal inflammations.
What does bad and good cholesterol mean
The amount of cholesterol (total cholesterol) in lipoproteins determines their appearance. Distinguish lipoproteins high (HDL) and low density (LDL).
Both forms are formed in the liver and contain cholesterol. LDL helps to transport the substance into the vascular walls, as a result of its accumulation, atherosclerotic plaques and atherosclerosis are formed.
Important! The active accumulation of low-density lipids in the walls of the arteries contributes to the deposition of calcium salts, the growth of connective tissue and the deterioration of the overall health of an adult.
The more a person needs proteins to form new cells, the more steroid hormones are needed, and, as a result, less LDL is needed.
High-density lipoproteins promote the reverse movement of cholesterol from the walls of blood vessels, tissues and organs. Next, HDLV is converted into other lipoproteins, transported to the liver and excreted in the bile.
In simple terms, the LDL level (low density) and the cholesterol in them are called bad, while the HDL (high lipoproteins) level, on the contrary, is good.
As soon as any of the connections of lipoproteins fails and the level of cholesterol in both the first and second cases ranges from higher (LDL) to lower (HDL), atherosclerosis occurs. Also significantly increases the risk of ischemia of the heart.
Norms and causes of deviations indicators
To decipher the results, it is necessary to examine blood taken on an empty stomach. Interpretation of the results gives general indicators of cholesterol (total level of all components), as well as the level of 3 types of lipoproteins:
- VLDL (very low density lipoproteins),
- LDL (low density lipoprotein),
- HDL (high density lipoprotein).
Normal indicators of cholesterol in adults are as follows:
- less than 5.2 mmol / l - normal
- up to 6.5 mmol / l - hypercholesterolemia, the allowable excess of the reference value,
- from 6.5 to 7.8 mmol / l - a pronounced excess of cholesterol concentration. At this rate, mortality from coronary heart disease is 5 times higher than in other patients,
- more than 7.8 mmol / l - extremely high hypercholesterolemia, in which immediate intervention is necessary specialists.
The reference values of cholesterol in HDL - 0.77-2.2 mmol / l.
Normal values of the substance in LDL - 2.3-5.4 mmol / l.
The rate of blood cholesterol in adults (women and men): table by age
|Indicator.||The norm in men, mmol / l.||The norm in women, mmol / l.|
|"Bad" cholesterol (LDL)||2,25-4,82||up to 3.5|
|Good cholesterol (HDL)||0,7-1,7||0,9-1,9|
Norms of blood cholesterol in men by age
|Age.||Total cholesterol (mmol / l).||LDL-cholesterol (mmol / l).||HDL-cholesterol (mmol / l).|
Blood cholesterol rates in women by age
|Age.||Total cholesterol (mmol / l).||LDL-cholesterol (mmol / l).||HDL-cholesterol (mmol / l).|
Elevated cholesterol manifests itself in obesity-related symptoms. A person suffers from overweight, usually diabetics.
Low rates often indicate intestinal diseases and malnutrition, exhaustion.
Cholesterol and atherosclerosis: is there a connection
Atherosclerosis is a chronic pathology characterized by a specific vascular lesion.
In atherosclerosis, the connective tissue grows in combination with cholesterol infiltration inside the choroid, and this process is also called the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque in the vessels.
As a result, such plaques constrict the normal lumen of blood vessels, impairing blood circulation. If the plaque completely closes the vessel, the blood can no longer circulate freely through the body. Necrosis of tissues will occur in this place due to the lack of oxygen that carries blood.
But if we talk about the direct connection between cholesterol and atherosclerosis, it is worth saying that there is no exact information about this.
Many scientists assume that this is simply a myth. However, there is also an assumption that some kind of sequence in identifying high cholesterol and the subsequent diagnosis of atherosclerosis in patients is noted.
The main factor in the development of the disease is the metabolism of proteins associated with fats. Moreover, not all lipid proteins can contribute to the appearance of atherosclerotic plaques.
The disease is often diagnosed in people whose cholesterol levels do not greatly exceed the permissible norms.
How to lower blood cholesterol
To remove cholesterol from the body, it is necessary to comprehensively influence the problem. For this you need:
- take medication prescribed by a doctor (statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, cholesterol absorption inhibitors),
- use nicotinic acid (you need to know that the effect after taking it develops in a few months, there will be no quick effect on reducing cholesterol using this substance),
- follow a special diet, diet (about it just below),
- reduce the consumption of butter, fatty fish and meat,
- reduce the amount of trans fat used
- avoid stressful situations.
With the help of complex treatment, it will be possible to reduce the level of cholesterol and prevent the development of serious pathologies of internal organs and systems. If you pay attention to your health in a timely manner and begin to lead a healthy lifestyle, you will be able to significantly reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis and associated diseases of the vascular system.
Feature cholesterol-lowering diet
The main goal is to prevent excessive consumption of saturated fats and dietary cholesterol. Therefore, you need to carefully monitor the amount of consumed animal fats, as they are the most dangerous.
A diet for lowering cholesterol in women’s blood, as in men, means following the following principles:
- Snacks Sandwiches - this is a bad option. It is best to eat fresh fruit or vegetables, salad without abundant use of vegetable oil.
- Butter consumption should be limited. It is desirable to give preference to vegetable, and the ideal option is considered high-quality olive oil.
- Should abandon semi-finished products, substandard sausages, wieners, sausages. Such products are hidden sources of saturated fat, which sooner or later lead to the development of atherosclerosis.
- From mayonnaise should be abandoned. This product is initially one of the most fat, and therefore - harmful products.
- The diet is best to include meals.prepared in the following ways: steaming, stewing, boiling. Frying for some time is best to forget.
- The menu should include soy products.. They guarantee the replacement of animal protein for optimal receipt of all necessary substances. Choosing soy products, you should take care of their high quality.
- It is recommended to follow closely for the number and frequency of inclusion in the diet of eggs, cheese, sour cream and cream. Otherwise, there is a risk of excess fat, which will lead to an increase in cholesterol in the blood.
- One of the most dangerous and unwanted products - lard, regardless of the method of its preparation. To prevent a negative impact on the body, it is desirable to include in the diet sea fish, which has an optimal benefit, instead of the usual fat.
- It is imperative to increase fiber intake.. That it is a natural and effective sorbent necessary for removing cholesterol from the body.
- Eat food need in small portions. In this case, the interval between them should be 3 to 4 hours.
- Calorie also plays an important role. However, it is undesirable to abandon a full state and starve yourself. The main task is to prevent weight gain. An increase of 500 grams of weight leads to an increase in cholesterol by 20%.
Proper and thoughtful food provides for the possibility of careful monitoring of health and eliminating the risk of increasing cholesterol. As a result, it is possible to prevent atherosclerosis and other diseases of the blood vessels.
What foods lower cholesterol and daily menu
Cholesterol-lowering diet implies the abandonment of fast food and trans fat, in favor of use:
- polyunsaturated fats omega-3 and omega-6,
- products with monounsaturated fats,
- pectin (pectic substances),
- protein products
- fruits, vegetables and legumes,
- foods rich in fiber.
Sample menu for the day with elevated cholesterol:
- First breakfast: buckwheat porridge 150 gr., apple or orange, black, green tea or coffee without sugar (with milk up to 1% fat).
- Lunch: tomato and cucumber salad 250 gr. (dressed with olive oil and spices to taste), carrot juice 200 ml.
- Dinner: vegetable soup with olive oil 300 ml., steamed chicken cutlets 150 gr., grilled vegetables 150 gr., wheat bread 1 slice, orange juice 200 ml.
- Tea time: oatmeal 130 gr., apple or orange juice 200 ml.
- Dinner: grilled lean fish 200 gr., steamed vegetables 150 gr., bran bread 1 slice, juice from tomatoes or green tea without sugar.
To lower cholesterol, you must follow the above diet. Include this menu in your diet once a month for 1 week.
With proper nutrition, it is essential to regularly include in the diet of fruits, vegetables and legumes. These products contain pectin and fiber, which reduces the cholesterol in the body. In addition, vitamins in fruits and vegetables are antioxidants, which guarantees the possibility of neutralizing harmful cholesterol.
Many fruits and vegetables contain fiber and magnesium. They are also great to fight bad cholesterol. Including fresh fruits and vegetables in the diet, you can quickly improve the immune system and ensure the full prevention of atherosclerosis.
The most useful cereals to fight bad cholesterol are oatmeal and buckwheat. The effectiveness of both porridges due to the fact that in the composition of the dishes present oatmeal.
Treatment of high blood cholesterol folk remedies
- Linden - one of the most effective recipes requires the use of powder, which is prepared on the basis of lime flowers. The powder can be prepared only in a coffee grinder, where the linden is crushed to a state of flour. After that, a remedy is taken in a teaspoon before breakfast, lunch and dinner.
Such therapy is carried out for a month, after which they make a 2-week break and continue treatment. For consolidation of optimal results, an additional monthly course is conducted. Without fail, a therapeutic agent is washed down with water.
- Tincture propolis - 4% propolis tincture is considered effective, which should be dissolved in a small amount of water. The remedy is taken 3 times a day, counting 7 droplets. After each dose of tincture, it is allowed to eat only after 30 minutes. The optimal duration of treatment is 3 months.
- Beans - this product can effectively lower cholesterol. In addition, the method of preparation of this folk remedy is easy and fast.
In the evening, pour half a cup of beans or peas with water and leave overnight. In the morning the water is drained, replacing it with fresh. After that add a pinch of baking soda. Beans are cooked to the finished state. The prepared product is eaten in 2 doses. Per day is allowed to eat up to 100 grams of beans.
The course of therapy is 3 weeks. During this period of time, cholesterol can be reduced by 10-15%.
- Alfalfa planting - one of the most useful tools. For treatment it is recommended to use only fresh grass.
Recipe: squeeze the juice out of alfalfa, then drink it 2 tablespoons 3 times a day. In order to guarantee to reduce cholesterol and consolidate the achieved results, therapy should be carried out within 1-2 months.
- Flax seed - for lowering cholesterol in the blood and cleansing the entire body of flaxseed to prepare a decoction.
The recipe is as follows: a tablespoon of seeds pour 0.5 liters of boiling water and keep on low heat for 30 minutes, then wrap in a towel and wait an hour for it to cool. The broth should be drunk after waking up and before going to bed on an empty stomach, 250 ml each.
- Dandelion roots - Many experts advise to use dandelion root powder to get rid of excess cholesterol and other harmful substances. Before each meal you need to drink 1 teaspoon of powder. Stable results will be achieved after semi-annual therapy.
- Herbal tincture - means prepared on the basis of medicinal herbs, have a high level of efficiency. For the preparation of medicinal remedies use 100 grams of Sophora fruit and 100 g of mistletoe grass, which is poured with a liter of vodka. This drink is drawn in a dark place for 3 weeks, then filtered. Infusion drink a teaspoon three times a day 30 minutes before meals. The remedy removes excess cholesterol and toxic substances from the body.
- Healing cocktail - To maintain optimal cholesterol, it is recommended to conduct a special treatment course annually with a special cocktail. This therapy is recommended 1 time in 12 months. To prepare a cocktail, use juice from 1 kg. lemons, 200 g of garlic gruel. Therapeutic agent insist in a cold and dark place for 3 days. After that, daily drink a tablespoon, diluting it in boiled water.
Prevention and recommendations
To improve health, it is desirable to take care of regular exercise. Muscles that are actively working, burn excess fat and sugar.
It is mandatory sports training conducted according to the following scheme to improve well-being and normalize cholesterol:
- half-hour warm-up in the morning and in the evening,
- walking at an average and fast pace - from three kilometers every day.
Thus, physical overvoltage is not required. However, the activity still contributes to improving health.
In exceptional cases, you should begin drug treatment. Reception of drugs is required if the level of cholesterol exceeds any permissible norms and the development of atherosclerosis is noted. Treatment is allowed to be carried out at home, but all the recommendations of doctors must be followed.
Normalization of cholesterol in the blood is one of the most important tasks. With a slight excess of the indicators, folk remedies and diets will be effective; if overpriced, it is worth contacting a specialist for identifying specific causes.
When is this test prescribed?
The definition of cholesterol is shown to the following patients:
- Women who take hormonal contraceptives for a long time,
- Menopausal women
- Men over 35 years old
- People at risk for heredity,
- Upon reaching a certain age,
- Suffering from diabetes and hypothyroidism,
- Have bad habits
- In the presence of symptoms of systemic atherosclerosis.
Most experts believe that sedentary work, a sedentary lifestyle, the lack of regular physical exertion in the fresh air, overeating, and an abundance of harmful food in the diet are the determining factors in the early development of atherosclerosis and the causes of high cholesterol in the population.
Norm cholesterol in the blood
Norm cholesterol can vary in the range of 3.6-7.8 mmol / l. However, doctors say that any level of cholesterol over 6 mmol / l is considered elevated and poses a health risk, as it can provoke atherosclerosis, in other words clog the vessels, creating obstacles to blood flow through the veins and arteries.
Blood cholesterol levels classification:
- Optimum - 5 or less mmol / l.
- Moderately elevated - 5-6 mmol / l.
- Dangerously elevated cholesterol - 7.8 mmol / l.
There are several types of these compounds:
- HDL - high density lipoproteins, transport excess cholesterol from the tissues to the liver for processing and excretion.
- LDL - low-density lipoprotein, designed to transport cholesterol from the liver to the tissues.
- VLDL - very low density lipoproteins, endogenous cholesterol, triglycerides in the body.
Elevated blood cholesterol contributes to the development of atherosclerotic lesion of blood vessel walls and is one of the risk factors for the development of severe cardiovascular diseases such as angina (ischemic heart disease) and myocardial infarction, cerebral stroke and intermittent claudication.
How to treat high cholesterol?
In order to reduce high cholesterol in the blood, an integrated approach is needed. Consult your doctor to select the best program to combat high cholesterol.
Depending on the degree of risk, different treatment methods are used:
- rejection of bad habits,
- weight loss,
- special diets
- drug treatment.
Helps lower blood cholesterol in women and men:
- physical activity 5-6 times a week for 30-60 minutes,
- do not eat products containing trans fats,
- eat plenty of fiber in foods that are allowed for a low-carb diet
- eat sea fish at least 2 times a week or take omega-3 fatty acids,
- stop smoking
- be sober or drink alcohol sparingly.
It should be noted the importance of regular medical examinations, because most of the diseases are much easier to cure at the initial stage, when a person is still practically not worried. Remember: the complications caused by high cholesterol are irreversible, and treatment does not eliminate the existing problems, but only prevents the development of new ones.
In order to lower hypercholesterolemia, you should limit cholesterol-boosting foods in your diet:
- red meat - beef, veal,
- egg yolk,
- fatty pork, lamb, lard,
- sausages, sausages,
- duck meat
- canned food
- easily digestible carbohydrates,
- fried foods
- products containing trans fats, the so-called fast food: chips, crackers, etc.,
- milk of high fat content: cheese, cream, sour cream, milk, ice cream, butter, ghee,
oysters, crabs, shrimps, caviar. For example, lobster weighing 100 grams. contains 70 mg. cholesterol.
Do not forget that on average, only 30% of cholesterol enters the blood from outside. The rest of it is produced by the body independently. Therefore, even if you try to reduce the level of these fats with the help of various diets, it is still impossible to “remove” its essential proportion.
Experts recommend adhering to a cholesterol-free diet not for the purpose of prevention, but only for medicinal purposes, when the level of these fats is really high.
Cholesterol lowering foods
In addition to restricting foods that increase cholesterol, you can add cholesterol-lowering foods to your diet.
- wheat germ,
- brown rice bran,
- sesame seeds
- sunflower seeds,
- pumpkin seeds,
- Pine nuts,
- olive oil,
- greens in any form,
- wild salmon and sardines - fish oil,
- blueberries, raspberries, strawberries, cranberries, lingonberries, aronia, pomegranate, red grapes.
Also, by eliminating coffee and replacing it with quality, weak green tea, cholesterol can be reduced by 15%.
The simplest and most natural way to keep vessels in good shape is movement: physical labor, gymnastics, dancing, walking, in short, everything that brings a feeling of muscle joy. In people who are physically active, the level of total cholesterol is usually lower, and the level of "good" is higher.
A half-hour walk at a moderate pace 3–5 times a week so that the pulse can increase by no more than 10–15 beats per minute is an excellent cycle of therapy.
In addition to such methods as increasing physical activity, maintaining a healthy lifestyle and eating healthy foods, a person with elevated cholesterol levels may be offered medication, among them:
- Traykor, Lipantil 200M. These tools effectively reduce cholesterol in patients with diabetes.
- Preparations: Atomax, Liptonorm, Tulip, Torvacad, Atorvastatin. In this case, the active ingredient is atorvastatitis.
- Avenkor, Vasilip, Simvastatit, Simvastol, Simgal and others. The active substance in each of these drugs is one - it is simvastatin.
In addition, after consulting with the doctor, you can try to take dietary supplements. They are not drugs, but they can help lower cholesterol.