Giardia in the liver is a protozoan invasion that is caused by simple microorganisms. The disease is characterized by digestive disorders. Abdominal pain, stool disorders, flatulence come to the fore. In parallel, the development of allergic, neurotic and hepatolienal syndrome.
Once in the human digestive tract, these unicellular organisms trigger a cycle of active reproduction. In adults, Giardia invasion is more reminiscent of symptoms of liver and biliary tract pathology. However, signs of giardiasis will not always be present. It was found that of 40% of sick people, clinical manifestations of invasion are observed in only 20%.
Giardiasis is ubiquitous. Statistics indicate that in developed countries the number of adults with giardiasis is from 3 to 5%, and in developing countries from 10 to 15%. Most parasitologists are sure that the real number of patients is much higher, which is associated with a high probability of an asymptomatic course of invasion in adulthood.
Symptoms of Giardia in the liver in adults
Symptoms of giardia in the liver in adults primarily depend on how long the infection occurred. Sometimes after getting lamblia in the digestive tract, a person simply remains a carrier of parasites, but there will be no clinical signs of the disease. Provided that massive invasion has occurred, the symptoms will be as follows:
Hepatolienal syndrome. This is a pathological condition characterized by an increase in the liver (hepatomegaly) and spleen (splenomegaly) in size.
Dyspeptic disorders, changing constipation to diarrhea, the occurrence of foamy stools. If the stool is liquid at the beginning of the disease, then later it becomes oily. Patients with lamblia are often diagnosed with enteritis, enterocolitis, duodenitis.
Rumbling in the abdomen, bloating, the appearance of severe pain in the intestine, in the right hypochondrium, in the navel. Massive giardiasis is characterized by belching and heartburn.
Allergic reactions. This is a very indicative symptom, especially if a person has not previously suffered from an allergy. Manifestations of the allergic syndrome can be very diverse, ranging from skin itching and minor rashes to atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, allergic bronchitis.
The characteristic signs of giardiasis in adults, on the part of the skin are dryness, pallor, yellowness and peeling of the dermis. Often there are cracks in the corners of the mouth - these are the so-called jams. Such symptoms are due to impaired absorption of nutrients and a deterioration in the functioning of the immune system.
The process of vital activity of Giardia is always accompanied by the release of toxins. They, in turn, negatively affect the nervous system. Therefore, the patient is more susceptible to depression, apathy and neurosis. Irritability increases, a person gets tired faster, becomes more troubled.
Often patients complain of disturbing dreams, night awakenings, sometimes insomnia develops, which significantly impairs the patient's quality of life.
Acute giardiasis lasts for a week, after which the person is either independently cured, or the disease becomes chronic.
The following symptoms are characteristic of chronic giardiasis in adults:
Gradual weight loss
A gradually developing psychopathological disorder with a deterioration in mental and physical performance, with lethargy and irritability,
Periodic exacerbations of intestinal disorders (diarrhea, flatulence, etc.).
Intoxication syndrome will be the stronger, the longer and more massive the invasion.
The main manifestations of intoxication on the background of giardiasis are as follows:
Enlarged peripheral lymph nodes,
Low-grade body temperature, which lasts for a long time,
The persistent course of infectious diseases (cheilitis, conjunctivitis, blepharitis),
Oppression of the immune system.
Nevertheless, despite the abundance of signs of lamblia in the liver in adults, the disease often remains undiagnosed for a long time. This is because the listed symptoms are not specific and can be observed with other diseases.
Causes of Giardia in the liver in adults
The source of distribution of Giardia is an invasive person. It is he who releases mature parasite cysts into the external environment. They exit the patient's body along with feces.
Carriers of giardia can be dogs, cats, rabbits and other animals. Various insects can transfer lamblia larvae on their paws: cockroaches, flies, ants, etc. The infection mechanism is fecal-oral. Giardia cysts can penetrate the human body by water, food and contact-household.
Therefore, the following causes of parasitic invasion can be distinguished:
Violation of the rules of personal hygiene. Especially in this regard dirty hands are dangerous.
Eating seeded fruits, herbs, vegetables, salads, berries, etc.
Drinking unboiled water. Although all the tap water entering the living quarters goes through several stages of treatment, it may contain lamblia cysts. They are able to get there through damaged pipes, or in violation of filtration technologies. Naturally, the risks of infection increase significantly when drinking water from natural sources.
Poor sanitary conditions. In this case, we are talking about the abundance of insects in the living room, as they are the spread of infection.
Exploitation of public goods without proper pretreatment.
A potential hazard is any contact with soil.
The invasion of the adult population will be the higher, the greater the pollution of the environment, the worse the condition of the water supply and sewerage system, the higher the crowding of the teams, the lower the level of sanitary and educational work in a particular village. These factors account for the high percentage of adult patients in developing countries.
It is worth noting that the risk of invasion in adulthood is not as high as in childhood. The fact is that the digestive system of an adult is more perfect and has a more aggressive environment for parasites. Therefore, if several lamblia cysts enter the digestive tract, infection may not occur.
The likelihood of infection increases with the following predisposing factors:
Congenital malformations and malformations of the biliary tract.
Diseases of the digestive system, accompanied by low acidity and a decrease in enzymatic activity.
Surgical interventions on the stomach and on the duodenum.
Adherence to low protein diets.
Errors in nutrition, leading to dystrophy.
The maximum surge in the incidence of giardiasis is recorded in spring and summer.
Diagnosis of Giardia in the liver in adults
Diagnosis of giardia in the liver in adults is quite difficult, due to a variety of symptoms, as well as the non-specificity of the clinical picture. Very often, patients with giardiasis are observed by gastroenterologists, allergologists, neurologists, dermatologists and other specialized specialists, receiving treatment that is ineffective. Therapy does not help, since it is aimed at eliminating any giardiasis syndrome, and not at treating the underlying disease.
During the examination of a patient with suspected giardiasis, the doctor must pay attention to such signs as:
Plaque on the tongue (most often it is white or yellow),
Bloating and rumbling in the intestines,
Pain in the right hypochondrium and around the navel, which intensifies during palpation.
For a final confirmation of the diagnosis, a laboratory examination of feces for lamblia cysts, or a study of duodenal contents, is required. The main method of laboratory diagnosis is a microscopic examination of fresh feces or smears.
To obtain and further study the duodenal contents, duodenal sounding is performed. When conducting diagnostics, it should be borne in mind that cysts and trophozoites of Giardia come out with feces not constantly, but cyclically. Therefore, to obtain the most reliable result, a fecal study should be carried out several times (from 3 to 5 studies over a month).
You can confirm the diagnosis using ELISA, using PCR diagnostics. However, these methods are not leading in terms of diagnosis.
Indirect methods to suspect giardiasis in adults are:
Ultrasound of the liver, gall bladder, cholecystography.
Performing a hemogram. An increased amount of eosinophils and monocytes in the blood will indicate giardiasis.
Performing a biochemical blood test. Indirect signs of invasion are deficiency of B-lymphocytes, a decrease in albumin concentration, and high levels of alkaline phosphatase.
According to the results of the analysis of feces on the microflora, signs of dysbiosis will be traced.
Thus, the correct diagnosis, although difficult, is possible.
Treatment of lamblia in the liver in adults
Treatment of giardia in the liver in adults should be carried out by a parasitologist. Self-medication is unacceptable. Therapy involves the implementation of three stages: preparatory, basic and regenerative.
The preparatory stage of the treatment of giardia in the liver. First, it is necessary to create such conditions in the body under which Giardia ceases to actively multiply. To this end, the patient is transferred to a dietary scheme with the use of bran, cereals, fruits and vegetables. At the same time, they limit carbohydrate food, and, first of all, sugar.
Patients should periodically spend fasting days. In parallel, antihistamines and choleretic drugs are prescribed. To normalize the digestive function, the patient is prescribed enzyme preparations: Festal, Creon, Pancreatin, etc.
The main stage of treatment of lamblia in the liver. The main stage of ridding a person of parasitic invasion is to take antiprotozoal drugs. The most commonly used drugs are: Metronidazole (Trichopolum), Tinidazole, Nimorazol, Ornidazole (Tiberal), Furazolidone, Albendazole (Nemozole). As a rule, the doctor prescribes 2 courses of treatment.
All of these drugs are characterized by good tolerance and have high anti-giard activity.
The recovery phase of the treatment of lamblia in the liver. The last stage of treatment is aimed at restoring the human body. To do this, he is prescribed enterosorbents, vitamin complexes, immunostimulants. Perhaps the use of herbal medicine. The need to take this or that drug is determined by the doctor.
As for the prognosis, with the competent implementation of the treatment regimen, its effectiveness reaches 95%. Although in the future re-infection is not excluded, since the body does not produce immunity. In this regard, it is necessary to observe the elementary rules for the prevention of giardiasis: do not drink raw water, especially from open sources, monitor the cleanliness of hands and premises.
Education: In 2008, a diploma was obtained in the specialty “General Medicine (General Medicine)” at the N. I. Pirogov Russian Medical Research University. An internship was immediately passed and a therapist diploma was received.
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Specificity of the disease
Giardiasis is an infectious disease that develops as a result of infection of the body with giardia. There are two forms of the disease: vegetative and trophozioid.
In the vegetative form, parasites live in the small intestine. They are attached to the walls of the body using special suction cups and begin to multiply. After 40 days, they enter the colon and are excreted, dying. With the trophozioid type of disease, helminths live in the liver. They can go into the form of cysts and retain the ability to reproduce for several months.
Parasites feed on split food residues that enter the human body. The results of their vital activity enter the bloodstream and negatively affect all human organs and systems.
The disease in the initial stages can be asymptomatic. Those symptoms that appear some time after infection are often attributed to an intestinal upset. Giardiasis of the liver can be accompanied by such symptoms:
- a white coating appears on the tongue, and an unpleasant smell from the mouth,
- the patient is disturbed by regular rumbling of the abdomen, bloating,
- frequent burping
- pain in the right hypochondrium,
- most patients report a sharp deterioration in appetite and a change in taste preferences,
- weakness, palpitations,
- loose stools.
If giardiasis of the liver is not amenable to treatment, it acquires a chronic form and is manifested by such symptoms:
- rashes appear on the skin, it begins to peel off,
- patients are worried about itching on the skin of the face, abdomen and hands,
- discomfort in the abdomen is manifested: cramping, pain, constipation.
In children, additional signs of the disease are redness of the lips, the formation of sores on them, peeling. After infection, the stool becomes fluid and watery, and body temperature may rise.
Causes and ways of infection
Infection occurs through contact with an infected carrier: animal or human. Their feces also contain a large number of helminths, which may not die in the external environment if they switched to the form of cysts. Most often, infection occurs in such ways from which lamblia appear in the liver:
- through raw tap water,
- through unwashed foods: fruits, vegetables and berries,
- through household items if an infected person came into contact with them (towels, dishes, children's toys),
- children become infected through dirty hands after playing in sandboxes,
- on the hair of pets that are infected with giardiasis, worm eggs can remain viable for some time.
Children and families who keep pets at home are most at risk of infection. Often, infection occurs as a result of non-compliance with hygiene rules during the cleaning of pet toilets.
How to identify: basic diagnostic methods
Diagnosis includes a medical history and a number of laboratory tests. The patient informs the doctor about all the symptoms and discomfort. Most often, based on subjective symptoms, it is impossible to make a final diagnosis. To determine the cause that caused the onset of symptoms, conduct such studies:
- coprogram (fecal analysis),
- Ultrasound of the liver to identify organ damage,
- serological diagnosis
- immunological research, which is aimed at identifying the stage of the disease,
- a general blood test will help to check for lamblia in the liver (bilirubin will be elevated if present).
Note! Giardiasis in adults can be accompanied by other diseases: cholecystitis, hepatitis, enteritis, cholangitis. It is impossible to independently determine the presence of giardia in the liver on the basis of external symptoms.Be sure to consult with an infectious disease specialist and undergo the necessary laboratory tests.
The main methods of treatment
How to treat giardia in the liver in adults? Therapy of giardiasis takes place in three stages. At first, it is necessary to prepare the body for taking medications. The doctor prescribes a certain diet, the menu of which excludes fried and fatty foods, sweets and carbonated drinks.
At the second stage, drug therapy occurs. Tablets are selected by a specialist taking into account the age, weight and specificity of the disease. For the treatment of giardiasis, the following drugs are used:
In addition, hepatoprotectors can be prescribed in order to protect the liver from the negative effects of strong anthelmintic drugs.
The third stage is restoration. It includes a set of measures aimed at restoring the normal functioning of the liver and intestines.
Note! If in the family someone suffers from helminthic invasion and undergoes anthelmintic therapy, it is recommended that all family members undergo treatment for preventive purposes. Parasites are easily transmitted from person to person through household items. The duration of treatment depends on how quickly therapy is started and if the stage has not yet been started.
In parallel with drug therapy, many people practice treatment with traditional medicine methods that will help to remove lamblia from the liver. They have a supportive effect and increase the effectiveness of drugs. For this purpose, apply such means:
- immortelle or milk thistle herbal tinctures,
- raw pumpkin seeds
- flax seeds (take 1 tbsp. l. before meals or chop and add to food),
- vegetable purees (squash, carrot, pumpkin).
Coconut is considered one of the effective treatment for giardia in the liver. The inside of the fruit is grated and mixed with coconut milk. Take 1 tbsp. l three times a day before meals for a week.
Pickled cabbage brine will help to quickly get rid of lamblia in the liver in adults. To do this, it is enough to take it half a glass before meals, preferably on an empty stomach.
The doctor will help determine the choice of the optimal supporting agent and get rid of giardia in the liver, given the severity of the disease and the severity of symptoms. It is not recommended to give preference exclusively to traditional medicine methods - this can complicate the course of the disease and cause the development of complications. Treatment should be carried out in a complex.
The main preventive measures of giardiasis of the liver are to observe the rules of personal hygiene. An important place is occupied by educational work among children and adolescents, which is aimed at informing them about the ways of infection. Young mothers should also know basic hygiene rules in order to control their children during games in the sand and to prevent eating with dirty hands on the street.
It is necessary to observe the following preventive recommendations:
- wash foods thoroughly before eating,
- drink only filtered or boiled water,
- while swimming in open water, try not to swallow water,
- after visiting pools, lakes and rivers, take a shower with soap,
- timely change bed linen and towels, wash and disinfect plumbing.
If anxiety symptoms or unusual sensations have been noticed in the body, you should not assure yourself that this is a common disorder or reaction of the intestine to some foods. It is better to consult a doctor and pass the necessary tests. The sooner the liver giardiasis is diagnosed, the easier it is to treat and the greater the chances of a quick and complete recovery.
The ways in which lamblia infection occurs
Morphologically, giardia exists in two forms, in accordance with the environment in which they are at the moment: in a moving form and in a motionless (i.e., in the form of a cyst). In a mobile form, they directly parasitize in the human or animal body, attaching themselves to suckers, and also multiply in it. And in the form of cysts, Giardia exists in special shells that protect them from external conditions unfavorable to them.
With feces of patients or simply carriers of this disease, cysts are released into the external environment for the spread and penetration into other organisms of humans or animals.
Thanks to the shell, they are protected not only mechanically, but also do not die from exposure to low or high temperatures in the external environment of their stay. Therefore, in reservoirs, tap water, as well as in moist soil, they can exist for up to three months. Once in the body of a new "host", cysts discard the protective membrane and turn into mobile creatures.
Sources of Giardia infection
Giardia infection can occur not only through water (tap water or directly from a reservoir), but through unwashed fruits and vegetables on which they find themselves. Even chlorinated tap water does not destroy the lamblia cyst. Infection is also possible through direct contact with a sick person, for example, through a handshake, clothes, or common objects of use, and in children, through toys.
In addition, since Giardia parasitizes in the organisms of domestic animals (cats and dogs), as well as horses, cows and birds, human communication with these animals without observing hygiene rules is another way of infection.
It is rather difficult and not always possible to directly detect lamblia by analysis methods. Therefore, you should know how the symptoms of liver giardiasis manifest in order to detect the disease in time:
- systematic pain in the lower abdomen and right hypochondrium,
- the size of the liver is increased,
- bloating and rumbling in it, flatulence,
- unstable stools, i.e. constant diarrhea and constipation,
- weakness, malaise,
- decreased appetite
- nausea, dizziness, headache,
- dry skin, pallor of the face, as well as plaque in the tongue,
- cardiac arrhythmia,
- increased irritability of the nervous system,
- bad dream.
A sign of liver giardiasis in children is high fever, frequent diarrhea (up to ten times a day), vomiting, and motion sickness.
Treatment of giardiasis of the liver with traditional medical methods
It is quite difficult to treat giardia in the liver. In traditional medicine, effective methods have been developed to remove lamblia from the liver. Treatment is carried out in three stages:
1st stage It is designed to increase the patient's immunity. It lasts from one to two weeks and consists of a special diet aimed at suppressing the reproduction of lamblia in the patient's body. Vegetables, liquid cereals, dried fruits, vegetable oil are recommended for this. In this case, you need to limit the use of foods containing carbohydrates. The attending physician can also prescribe choleretic drugs, which significantly help in the fight against these parasites.
2nd stage treatment of giardiasis - medication. Drugs that are detrimental to these parasites are used. Doctors recommend taking Furazolidone, Tiberal in accordance with the instructions.
3rd stage treatment consists in consolidating the achieved successes in order to cure the patient completely. For this, in the patient's body, it is necessary to create conditions that impede the propagation of Giardia and contribute to increasing its immunity. The third stage can last up to three weeks, it consists in observing a special diet containing fermented milk products, fruit and vegetable puree, mashed apples, cereal cereals. Vitamin therapy is also prescribed to enhance the patient's immunity.
What is giardiasis
Giardia infection occurs by the fecal-oral route. Cysts enter the human body through unwashed hands, with food, unboiled tap water or water from infected sources. In the upper segments of the intestine, the vegetative form of giardia parasitizes. Protozoa feed on food debris; foods rich in simple carbohydrates are especially attractive to parasites.
With feces, active trophozoites and cysts enter the external environment. The latter have a dense shell, which protects against the negative effects of environmental factors.
Penetrating into the human body, parasites provoke the development of giardiasis. 7-14 days after the penetration of the parasite, an acute form of the disease develops with the appearance of characteristic symptoms. If the patient has not received treatment, the infectious process goes into the chronic stage. A person may not even be aware of the presence of a parasitic infection, he maintains normal health.
What is giardiasis
Statistics indicate that among adults, 3-10% of people are affected by giardia (in less developed countries, the prevalence of infection is higher than in regions with a high standard of living). Among preschool children, infection with a parasitic infection is 20-30%.
How does acute giardiasis manifest
It is in children that the signs of damage to the digestive organs are most pronounced. The first symptoms of giardiasis in children and adults are manifested:
- bloating, increased gas formation,
- language overlay,
- a significant increase in the size of the liver, which is detected by the doctor during percussion and palpation, ultrasound scanning.
The patient suffers from acute pain around the umbilical region, lower abdomen, right hypochondrium. An unpleasant belching appears, appetite worsens.
In a person affected by parasites, blood pressure may decrease, a state of fainting may occur. The heart responds to invasion by rhythm disturbance.
Disorders of the nervous system are manifested by the appearance of an astheno-neurotic complex. Unusual previously severe headaches, increased irritability appear, and the quality of sleep worsens. A person gets tired very quickly even without strong physical or mental stress.
The state of the skin changes with giardiasis. She becomes dry, pale. Particularly noticeable is the absence of a blush on the face, as well as the appearance of dark circles under the eyes. Hepatobiliary form of the lesion, in which a large number of lamblia is present inside the bile ducts, leads to the appearance of icteric skin tone.
Often infection with parasites provokes an allergy. Violation is manifested by itching, rashes on the skin (urticaria). Bronchitis may occur with bronchospasm, asthma attacks. In some patients, there is damage to the mucous membranes of the eyes, conjunctiva, allergic rhinitis, in more rare cases, joint pain.
Signs of Giardia in the baby’s liver
Children are significantly more sensitive to the presence of lamblia in the body than adults. With parasitic invasion, the baby's health worsens. Giardia take nutrients from the blood, in return emit toxic products. The child develops weakness, appetite noticeably worsens.
The baby begins to get sick more often. A tendency to inflammation, asthma develops, pronounced allergic reactions appear.
In the liver, the bile ducts of the baby lamblia penetrate from the upper intestine. The acute form of the disease with massive parasite infestation is accompanied by fever, refusal to eat, severe abdominal pain. In children under three years of age, there is an attack of nausea and vomiting, diarrhea. The excreted feces in giardiasis are very fetid, fatty.
Ways of infection with giardiasis
On a note! Parents need to carefully monitor the behavior and well-being of the child.
It is necessary to show the child to the doctor as soon as possible and undergo an examination in order to detect giardia, if at least two or three of the following symptoms are observed:
- temperature at 37 degrees (especially in the evenings) for 14 or more days,
- digestive problems - constipation or, conversely, loose stools,
- night grinding of teeth - this phenomenon is caused by the action on the central nervous system of giardiasis toxins,
- lethargy, drowsiness, problems with concentration,
- pallor of the skin
- abdominal pains of inconsistent localization, often under the ribs on the right, near the navel,
- choking cough
- tendency to motion sickness in transport, dizziness, jumps in blood pressure,
- rhinitis that occurs when changing weather conditions, changing body position.
During the examination of the baby, the doctor discovers an increase in the size of the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes. A general blood test with a leukocyte formula shows an increased content of eosinophils.
Lamblia Life Cycle
How do lamblia appear in the liver in adults
Adults do not react as sharply as children to the presence of giardia in the liver, bile ducts. Symptoms of acute parasitic infection occur only with the accumulation of a significant number of microscopic individuals.
During the examination, the doctor identifies the patient with signs of hepatolienal syndrome. It is manifested by hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), splenomegaly (spleen hypertrophy). The patient has a narrowing of the bile ducts (dyskinesia), which is accompanied by stagnation of the biologically active fluid. Gradually, cholecystitis develops.
Dyspeptic disorders occur - constipation, which are replaced by diarrhea with loose and oily stools. In patients with giardiasis, enteritis, duodenitis, enterocolitis are diagnosed.
A sick person complains that his stomach is puffing, a loud rumbling suddenly appears in him. There are pains in the intestines, from the liver, around the navel. Massive invasion provokes heartburn, belching.
On a note! In addition to digestive disorders,Giardia in the liver in adultsprovokeof problemss in workother systems.
The appearance of an allergy is one of the most characteristic symptoms of a parasitic infection. Hypersensitivity is manifested by skin rashes (from several papules to massive atopic dermatitis), recurrent bronchitis, and attacks of bronchial asthma.
The skin of adults with giardiasis acquire a pale yellow tint. Derma becomes dry, peeling. Small painful cracks may occur in the corners of the mouth. Such symptoms are associated with a deterioration in the process of assimilation of nutrients from the digestive tract, as well as the effect of toxins that enter the bloodstream during giardiasis.
Poisoning the body with the waste products of parasites provokes disturbances in the functioning of the nervous system. A sick person becomes irritable, quickly gets tired. He has headaches, sleep worsens. Apathy, anxiety, and depression are gradually developing.
The acute phase of giardiasis in adults lasts 7-10 days. After this, recovery occurs or a chronicization of the pathological process occurs. It is characterized by such manifestations:
- weight loss
- poor performance combined with increased irritability or apathy,
- occasional attacks of diarrhea, increased gas formation.
With prolonged giardiasis invasion, intoxication increases. All new health disorders are revealed:
- hypertrophy of the nasopharyngeal tonsils,
- enlarged lymph nodes,
- subfebrile condition, persisting for a long time,
- recurrent or sluggish conjunctivitis, blepharitis, cheilitis,
- decreased body resistance to infectious agents.
Even with several of the listed manifestations of giardiasis invasion in the liver, the true reason for the deterioration of well-being in adults is often not diagnosed for a long time.The reason for this is the similarity of symptoms of giardiasis with manifestations characteristic of other diseases.
How is giardiasis diagnosed?
A person is easily infected with giardia. But it is not always possible to accurately determine their presence in the body. There are several laboratory and instrumental methods for diagnosing giardiasis. But none of them is absolutely accurate in detecting the parasite. Therefore, the diagnosis is made by doctors on the basis of patient complaints, objective data obtained during examination of the patient, as well as a comprehensive laboratory and instrumental examination.
The examination involves such procedures.
|Laboratory methods||Study Features||Instrumental methods||Study Features |
|Identification of cysts in feces||Repeated analysis is sometimes required (2-3 times)||Fibrogastroduodenoscopy, portion of bile "A"||A laborious and tedious method for the patient, rarely used today |
|Identification of antigens to giardia in feces, tissue samples obtained by biopsy||Highly informative method, detects antigens even during periods when cysts do not go out with feces.|
Available only in laboratories in major cities
|Ultrasound examination of the liver, biliary tract||It shows the presence of dyskinesia, signs of inflammation of the ducts |
|Polymerase chain reaction to determine individual giardia DNA||Highly informative, but expensive analysis, not widely used||Cholecystography with a contrast agent||Detects cholestasis, dyskinesia |
|Detection of immunoglobulins M, G, A in venous blood||Indirect diagnostic method. A false positive result is possible if there are blastocysts, intestinal amoeba in the body|
|Complete blood count with leukocyte formula||Indirect method. Allows to suspect giardiasis with repeated detection of a high eosinophil count|
Giardia infection as a disease
Giardia are the simplest unicellular microorganisms that can parasitize in the intestine, gall bladder and duodenum. The main localization in the human body is the gaps of the small intestine (about 85% of cases). Cases of damage to the liver tissue by microorganisms are quite rare due to the lack of a favorable nutrient medium, but with a long course of the disease, the lamblia create the necessary conditions for pathogenic life activity. The hepatobiliary form of giardiasis is a serious disease, as it is combined with damage to the bile ducts. Giardia in the liver can provoke gastritis, gastroduodenitis, pancreatitis, cholestasis and biliary dyskinesia. There are two forms of the existence of giardia:
- Vegetative. Giardia in this form can parasitize inside the host organism.
- Cysts. They represent spore forms when active life activity stops. Existence in the form of cysts is necessary to maintain viability outside the host organism.
The vegetative form is converted into cysts after microorganisms enter the colon of the carrier, from where they are excreted in the feces. Cysts can exist outside the body of a human or mammal for many months before entering a new organism. Giardiasis of the liver is the subject of research by doctors of gastroenterologists, parasitologists and pediatricians (in children's practice).
The penetration of parasites into the body of a healthy person or animal is possible by contact-household or fecal-oral route. The protozoan infection can be carried by a person or a warm-blooded animal. The main sources of infection are:
- drinking raw water (pond, water supply),
- poorly washed vegetables, fruits,
- household items (toys for children, home textiles, dishes),
- neglect of personal hygiene (dirty hands),
- games and petting with pets (mainly in children).
In addition to the main reasons, there are a number of factors that can provoke damage to the body by giardia. For example, excessive consumption of foods high in carbohydrates, insufficient fermentation in the digestive tract, low acidity of gastric juice, lack of bile secreted by the pancreas.
Giardia in the liver and other organs parasitizes for a long time without special symptoms, but after some time, patients can already feel signs of a general decrease in body tone, symptoms of mild intoxication. Parasitic activity provokes inflammatory processes in the digestive tract, malabsorption, secondary fermentopathy, endogenous intoxication and the development of dysbiosis. Giardia secrete a special toxic component that negatively affects the organs. The disease has two main forms of flow:
- sharp process
- chronic form.
An acute pathological condition requires immediate treatment due to the high risk of transition to a chronic form. Protozoal invasion is accompanied by discomfort in the epigastric region, the patient experiences constant nausea, the urge to empty the intestines. Infection often affects young children and adults.
Common symptoms for all types of giardiasis
- soreness in the hypochondrium or abdomen,
- excessive pallor of the skin,
- discoloration of palms and feet, up to a rich red tint,
- dry skin.
The disease is characterized by the appearance of arrhythmia, general weakness, sweating. Some patients complain of continuous nausea and other dyspeptic disorders (thinning of the stool, vomiting), emotional instability and fatigue occur.
The main symptoms of giardiasis of the liver
- the appearance of milk plaque in the tongue,
- a change in the structure of liver tissue (increase, compaction),
- bloating and violent rumbling.
The lack of adequate timely treatment leads to complications of the disease (intoxication, dysfunction of some organs and systems), as well as the emergence of a chronic form of the disease.
Signs of chronic liver giardiasis
- a feeling of heaviness in the stomach
- drawing pains in the navel area
- signs of cholecystitis,
- weight loss,
- fatigue, short temper, or apathy,
- the appearance of bitterness in the mouth.
Factors such as poor diet, excessive eating, bad habits, and poor hygiene can contribute to relapses. Children at the age of 2.5 to 5 years are considered to be a risk group for the occurrence of a chronic form of liver giardiasis.
Signs of ailment in children
With giardiasis of the liver, the symptoms in children are more pronounced. In children, intoxication is rapidly increasing, temperature may rise, and diarrhea appears. There is a risk of rapid dehydration, which entails irreversible processes in the body, including loss of consciousness and coma. The initial stages of the development of the disease are manifested by rumbling, pain near the navel. After a few days, the symptoms increase and are rapid in nature, for example, the development of reactive pancreatitis, dyskinesia of the bile ducts and biliary tract.
An important aspect of the successful treatment of acute giardiasis is a thorough diagnosis. The main task of differential diagnosis is to exclude other diseases of the liver and biliary tract.
With parasitization in the liver, giardia can affect its function. Accurate diagnosis is often difficult due to the wide range of possible manifestations of the disease. With a burdened clinical history or a tendency to diseases of the digestive tract, the liver, additional diagnostic methods are often required to exclude pathological changes in organs, systems, as well as tumor formations. The main methods for detecting infection are:
- visual examination of the patient (skin, oral cavity),
- interrogation of the patient for complaints,
- study of clinical, life history,
- blood sampling for biochemical examination,
- urinalysis (sometimes for sterility),
- analysis of feces for bacteriological culture,
- parasitological examination (detection of cysts in biological materials).
With the manifestation of giardiasis, it is necessary to conduct a whole range of laboratory tests. Among others, experts often use the PCR method (polymerase chain reaction), ELISA (antibodies in the blood serum). This allows you to more accurately understand how to treat infection.
Alternative methods of treating giardia and other parasites have gained immense popularity even in the medical environment. Some recipes are effective and expel parasites within a week.
- Cabbage pickle. To destroy giardia, you need to drink up to 100 ml of brine before meals 3-4 times a day.
- Coconut pulp. Effective for expelling lamblia in children. To prepare the recipe, it is necessary to open the fruit, remove the liquid in a separate container. The pulp must be carefully chopped and combined with milk. The composition can be given to the child several times a day before meals, 1 tablespoon. The therapeutic course lasts about 7 days, after which a two-week break is made. If necessary, treatment can be continued for a sufficiently long time. The child will gladly continue the tasty therapy.
- Flax-seed. To prepare the recipe, you need to combine flax seeds with cloves in a ratio of 1: 1. The composition must be crushed and added to food. The daily norm of the powder is 30 g. Flax helps to safely and quickly remove giardia from the liver.
Treatment with folk remedies may be contraindicated in people with a burdened clinical history. Before you get rid of lamblia in the liver yourself, it is important to consult a specialist.
How to get rid of giardia in the liver
Treatment of giardiasis is necessary if the diagnosis is confirmed by studies. Therapy involves an integrated approach in several stages.
Treatment is aimed at eliminating signs of intoxication, improving the enzymatic activity of the digestive glands, cleansing the intestines, and normalizing the state of the immune system. The preparatory period usually lasts 10-14 days. During this time, the patient is advised to follow a special diet that limits the intake of protein and foods high in simple carbohydrates. Patients need to give up sweets, flour, confectionery, smoked meats. In the diet should prevail:
- cereal dishes
- dried fruit
- Fresh vegetables and fruits
- unrefined vegetable oils.
Drugs for the treatment of giardiasis
Doctors recommend taking choleretic drugs, sorbents, antiallergic drugs. According to the results of the coprogram, enzymes can be assigned.
The next stage is anti-giardiasis drug therapy, which lasts 5-10 days. In the acute course of the disease, treatment is carried out in stationary conditions under the supervision of doctors. This is due to the high toxicity of antiparasitic medicines, as well as the presence of many contraindications.
Antiparasitic treatment is carried out with drugs that have a detrimental effect on the protozoa:
To reduce the likelihood of developing an allergic reaction, antihistamines are additionally prescribed. Enterosorbents help to reduce the effect of toxins released by parasites on the patient’s body (Sorex, Enterosgel, Smecta, Activated carbon) To facilitate the excretion of giardia from the liver and bile ducts, antispasmodics may be recommended (No-shpy), as well as the procedure for blind sounding.
The third stage involves recovery after drug therapy. At this time, the body's defenses are strengthened, conditions are created in the digestive and hepatobiliary systems in which lamblia do not multiply.
Patients are advised to follow a diet based on cereals, mashed vegetables, fruits, dairy products. Such nutrition improves the normal functioning of the gall bladder, intestines, eliminates dysbiosis.
Patients are prescribed:
- adaptogenic herbal preparations,
- vitamin and mineral complexes,
- pre-, probiotics,
- enzymatic agents.
To assess the effectiveness of the treatment, the patient is prescribed tests immediately after the course. Re-diagnosis should be done after a month.
How to avoid infection with giardia
Prevention of giardiasis is to comply with hygiene rules. Adults should stick with them and teach their children this.
You can avoid infection if:
- do not drink boiled water from a water supply system, open sources,
- Before eating, thoroughly wash fruits, vegetables,
- wash hands with soap before eating,
- conduct anthelmintic treatment of animals once every six months,
- take anthelmintic drugs (recommended by a doctor) for adults and small family members in spring and autumn.
On a note! For prophylactic purposes and as an adjunct in drug therapy, you can take anthelmintic based on folk recipes.
Methods for the prevention of giardiasis
One of the most affordable of them is pickled cabbage pickle. Adults are recommended to drink 100 ml half an hour before a meal. The duration of the course is 10-12 days.
Oat broth will not only cope with parasites, but will also give strength to children and adults. For a healthy drink you will need 250 g of oats, 1 liter of pure water. Boiling water, it is necessary to steam the oats and keep it on low heat for 1-1.5 hours. The resulting liquid is drunk 3-4 times a day shortly before meals. Drink for children can be sweetened with a small amount of honey.
Before using prophylactic folk remedies against giardia, it is necessary to consult a doctor. Many recipes contain alcohol, plants with toxic properties. Their uncontrolled intake can only worsen the state of health.