European Hoof (Asarum europaeum L

European ungulate is a plant that covers the soil under trees and forms a carpet; it is very common in the forests of Siberia and the European part of Russia. European ungulates are part of many drugs.

The hoof, despite its unusual name, has been very common since ancient times. It was used in magic and folk medicine. But only in very recent times did official pharmacology pay attention to this herb. European ungulate is an evergreen plant growing in the forests of Russia. The leaves of this plant are dark green, in winter they are well preserved under snow.

Strange, but the leaves of the clefthoof fall only after they have wintered the cold season and wait until the beginning of summer. It is easy to learn European hoof, despite the fact that it grows in a forest with many other plants. It looks like this: on a winding and long stalk there are leathery leaves with a fairly long cut, in appearance it all resembles the shape of a hoof. From here follows the name proper - "European ungulate". The smell of this plant is quite bitter, with hints of pepper. You can feel it only when you rub the leaves of the plant in your hands.

From the fact that the ungulate looks rather peculiar, it smells specifically, and has a certain amount of toxicity, it has many different names. We list several names of this plant: “emetic root”, “vomit”, “wild pepper”, “hare root”, “earth incense”, “undergrowth”, “core” and many other names. To use hoof should be in moderation and very carefully, because it is poisonous. And it’s not the individual parts of the plant that are poisonous, but all of it completely. If you neglect all the rules of caution when using medicines that are based on hoofed grass, you can get serious poisoning.

European ungulates during flowering - and this occurs in spring, in late April or early May - is covered with flowers, which are very difficult to see under wide and dark leaves. Clefthoof is propagated by seed. If we talk about the propagation of this plant, then everything is very well thought out, because there is no wind in the forest near the earth itself, and somehow the seeds need to be transferred. This work is carried out by ant workers. This work entices them with the fact that the seeds have fleshy-oily outgrowths that are very well suited as food. Insects eat them and carry seeds throughout the forest.

For medicines of traditional medicine I use only the roots and leaves of the clefthoof. The roots are dug either in spring or in autumn. And it is desirable to collect the leaves during the flowering of the plant, this is until about mid-June. But, in fact, if you look, the leaves can be harvested throughout the summer, until the beginning of autumn. Drying the leaves of hoofed grass is necessary in the shade. The room should be well ventilated, and the temperature should not exceed fifty degrees of heat.

The use of European Clefthoof

For rheumatic, joint and headaches, compresses with a broth of hoofed meat, various lotions or oils are used. For the treatment of eye diseases, it is necessary to resort to a decoction of clover leaves.

Hoofed eggs can be used as a medicine when you are sick with pneumonia, colds, bronchitis, asthma or tuberculosis, because hoofed eggs have anti-inflammatory, expectorant and bronchodilating effects. To cure these diseases, you need to use a hoof in the form of a decoction or tincture of alcohol. So that the broth of the hoofed meat is not too sharp, it is diluted with honey or hot milk before use.

Hoofed eggs are also used to treat diseases of the biliary tract, gastrointestinal tract, gall bladder and urinary bladder and liver. At an earlier time, hoofs were used to treat jaundice. If you suffer from headaches, insomnia, increased nervous irritability, neurotic conditions, epilepsy or migraine, then take European ungulates as a sedative.

In small concentrations, tincture of European ungulate leaves is used to treat female diseases, and also normalizes heart activity, increases vein tone, and is used to accelerate blood flow. The use of powder or a decoction of European ungulates is recommended if necessary in the treatment of alcoholism or poisoning to induce vomiting, and strong. In order to cure a person from alcohol dependence, a person can take a medical course without suspecting it. That is, a concentrated broth of hoofed meat is mixed with alcohol, after the patient drinks it, he begins vomiting. After a series of such techniques, alcohol (without hoof) will also cause severe vomiting in the person.

European ungulates are used not only in folk medicine and modern pharmacology, but even in the magic of various countries. The leaves of the clefthoof were dried, after which they were added to various combustible mixtures, which fumigated the room, that is, they cleaned it of evil spirits. The leaves were used to create all kinds of amulets, charms: it was believed that they would protect from the evil eye or damage. Also, to protect the animals from the evil eye, dried hoofed meat was hung above the front door.

At that time, when the tradition of snuffing tobacco was widespread, dry leaves of European ungulate were specially added to it: people believed that in this way it gives the healing power of tobacco and enhances its actual tobacco effect. It happened mainly in Europe. Now this plant is used to decorate the landscape.

Clefthoof Properties

The composition of European hoofs includes essential oil, various resins, alkaloids, starch, mucus, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and much more.

European ungulates possess extensive pharmacological properties. It causes vomiting, expectorant, bronchodilating anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, laxative effects, and also has antipyretic, wound healing, diuretic, anthelmintic, sedative, anti-sclerotic properties. European hoofed grass is also used to treat various wounds, formed purulent ulcers, scabies.

Clefthoof Cooking

European hoofs are used for the manufacture of ointments for external use. They do it this way: they grind the roots of the hoof into powder and mix with oil, petroleum jelly, lard or fat. In order for the ointment to be most effective, badger fat must be used, and sea buckthorn or cedar oil must be used.

From hoofs you can prepare not only ointments and oils, but also tinctures, decoctions, infusions, powders. Powders, by the way, are made from the root of the clefthoof. All this, except for oils and ointments, can be consumed inside.

To prepare the daily rate of therapeutic tincture, you need to take two teaspoons of European ungulate, pour into a thermos and pour a glass of boiling water.


European ungulate, although a slightly poisonous plant, but it should be taken only with permission and on the advice of a doctor. Beware of overdose! In no case do not take more than two tablespoons of the drug at a time.

Education: A diploma in the specialty of “Medicine” and “Therapy” was obtained at the N. I. Pirogov University (2005 and 2006). Further training at the Department of Herbal Medicine at Peoples' Friendship University of Moscow (2008).

European hoof

European ungulate - the so-called "carpet" plant. Short, densely growing, creating the feeling of a green carpet under the trees. Its main habitat is Siberian forests and the European part of Russia. European hoof belongs to the family of kirkazonovy plants. Its leaves are green, shiny, growing on shaggy petioles. The leaves also have a harsh specific aroma.

In addition, European ungulate is an evergreen. And its leaves under snow in the winter are well preserved, do not fade and do not freeze.
In early summer, with the onset of heat, last year's leaves fall off, and new ones begin to appear in their place. The hoof was given its name precisely because of the shape of the leaves, which resembles a hoof.

This plant blooms in spring, in early May. Its flowers, of a dark reddish hue, look like small bells, are rather inconspicuous and hardly distinguishable behind wide and dense leaves. Clefthoof is propagated by ants. They carry seeds of the plant on the ground, which then sprout and create a “carpet” green cover in the forest under the trees.

In people, this plant is also called hare leaf, hernia and vomiting root.

Useful properties of European Clefthoof

In medicinal spruce the roots of European ungulate are used. And traditional medicine still benefits human health from the leaves.

Raw materials are harvested in deciduous forests and ravines in spring or autumn. They are preferred to be kept fresh in paper boxes. But, if there is no possibility for such storage, the roots and leaves can be completely dried in the oven, at a temperature of no more than 35 degrees Celsius. True, a certain percentage of medicinal properties during drying is still lost.

The main purpose in medicine of European ungulates is the therapy of chronic forms of alcoholism.

The chemical composition of the hoof rhizome is as follows: essential oils, azaronic acid, alkaloids, bornyl acetate, coumarin, flavonoids, glycosides, phytosterols, saponin, mucus, organic acids, resins and astringents.

This composition determines the main therapeutic effect of this plant.

The use of leaves and roots of European ungulates

In medical practice, there are two approaches to the treatment of alcoholism. One applies exclusively to those who are aware of the need for their treatment and who themselves want to get rid of their addiction. The second approach is applied to those who refuse to recognize their dependence on alcoholic beverages.

Treatment is carried out by relatives. A decoction is cooked for a person (a tablespoon of raw materials is poured with water and boiled for five to seven minutes, then the broth is filtered and put in the refrigerator). The resulting medicine is poured into the patient in alcohol at a dosage of: 1 tablespoon of the broth in a glass of vodka (200 ml).

Herbal decoction will cause a person to vomit and a feeling of disgust for alcohol in general. To consolidate the effect, it is important to pour the broth into alcohol several times in a row. And for the 5-6th time, even pure alcohol will cause the patient to vomit.

With informed treatment, medical supervision is important.

At the same time, you can still add a couple of teaspoons of raw green pericarp of walnuts to the usual recipe, pour a teaspoon of the mixture with wine (4 l), insist for two weeks, drink 1-2 glasses a day before meals.

During therapy, the patient will experience nausea, a feeling of tightness in the chest, mood will be reduced, periodically vomiting may occur. All these symptoms and signs will develop in the patient a sense of aversion to alcohol.

European ungulate also has anti-inflammatory, bronchodilating, and expectorant effects. In this regard, its use goes beyond the treatment of alcoholism. This plant is effective for bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, asthma, colds of the upper respiratory tract, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, biliary tract, liver, urinary tract and gall bladder.

Moreover, conditions such as neurosis, irritability, migraine, insomnia, headaches are subject to the effects of this plant. To remove this symptom, a decoction is used according to the above recipe, which is diluted with hot milk and with the addition of honey before use.

The daily norm of decoction of European ungulates is prepared as follows: in a thermos, two teaspoons of raw materials are poured with boiling water (250 ml). Insist for half an hour. The resulting decoction is filtered and applied as intended.

You can make lotions with hoof infusion. They are effective for eczema associated with nervous diseases or stress.

The diluted decoction of this plant is used with high enough efficiency and for gynecological diseases, to increase venous tone, accelerate blood flow, and restore cardiac activity.


European ungulate is a plant from the category of poisonous. And therefore, independent treatment with it can lead to very sad consequences: impaired functionality of the stomach, kidneys, liver, intestines, gall bladder.

During the treatment of alcoholism, the use of more than 2 tablespoons of the broth at one time is prohibited.

If the patient has heart failure, the use of this drug is strictly prohibited.

In medicine

European hoof, by virtue of its toxicity, as such is not used in official medicine. Nevertheless, the official medicine of many countries of the world, including Poland, uses the beneficial properties of the hoof in medical practice. For example, hoof rhizomes in the form of powder and infusion are used as emetic and expectorant. Also in Poland, on the basis of the plant, the preparation Escarol was obtained, which has an expectorant effect. Official medicine also uses tincture from fresh leaves of ungulates. So, for example, tincture from the leaves of European ungulates is a part of the Akofit preparation used in acute radiculitis and neuralgia. In addition, hoof in scientific medicine in a number of countries is recommended as an effective remedy for chronic cardiovascular failure as an adrenaline analogue. It has been experimentally proved that hoofed extract is able to increase heart rate, increase venous tone and reduce the lumen of peripheral blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. In the gynecological practice of some countries, in particular Ukraine, European ungulates are used for oligomenorrhea (meager and rare menstruation) as a means of exerting a regulatory effect in cases of menstrual irregularities.

Contraindications and side effects

European ungulate is a poisonous plant. The use of ungulates requires special care, as in case of an overdose it causes vomiting. Therefore, the plant can be used only under the supervision of a doctor. It is not recommended to use drugs based on European hoofs for children, women during pregnancy and lactation.

In homeopathy

In homeopathy, the medicinal properties of European ungulates are highly appreciated, while the toxicity of the plant does not matter as such, since active substances are contained in negligible amounts in homeopathic medicines. For example, the homeopathic initial tincture “Asarum” is prepared from fresh rhizome of a plant and various dilutions (not lower than D1) from evening “hot flashes”, nervous exhaustion, cold hands, colds, etc. are used.

Botanical certificate

Hoof (Asarum) belongs to the Kirkazonov family and is a relative of the well-known kirkazon liana, although he himself is a stunted plant. There are about 100 species in the genus. Its representatives are also found in Europe, but most often in Southeast Asia.

European hoof in Russia grows in Russia (Asarum europaeum), also called hoofed. Already from the species name it can be seen that it is common in the European part, although it is also found in southern Siberia. At least I met him in Altai in the Turochak district, in the taiga.

European hoof

In addition to European ungulates, in the middle lane there are 2 more species: intermediate and K. Zibold, but it is our species that is of interest as an ornamental plant.

Plant description

European hoof - a low herbaceous plant, perennial and evergreen. The name of the hoof it received for the unusual shape of the leaf, resembling the hoof of a horse. These rounded bright green shiny leathery leaves that retain their greens all year round are the main decoration of the plant.

The height of the hoof does not exceed 15 cm. Its shoots spread and root - this is how a compact bush is obtained, gradually occupying an increasingly large area. A “hat” is formed, and then a “rug” of this plant. And even the Latin name azarum in Greek means carpet. Rhizomes he also creeping, cord-like.

Clefthoof Flower

Flowering usually goes unnoticed. Inflorescences can be seen, if only to specifically look under the leaves. From the sinus of the leaf on the peduncle there appears a single flower of a dirty, dark red color - furry, in the form of a bell with a diameter of about 1 cm.There are many such inflorescences in the jacket, but they are completely invisible - they hide under the leaves and are located near the ground itself.

Clefthoof blooms in May, and in July a fruit is formed - a box in which the seeds ripen. They are pulled away by ants, and the plant spreads with the help of seeds.

Botanical Description

Evergreen perennial (5-15 cm in height) with a rather brownish, thick, lying stalk (up to 30 cm long) covered with short pressed hairs and creeping rhizome. The plant has a peculiar smell. The leaves are simple, without stipules, long-leaved, whole-marginal, bud-shaped (5-8 cm in diameter) with distinct veins. The leaf blade on both sides is also covered with short pressed hairs, has a specific shape, resembles a trace from a horse's hoof, while the width is clearly greater than the length. Last year’s wintering leaves are dark green, leathery, almost naked on top, shiny, pubescent on the bottom, young ones are opposite, lighter, tender, also with long petioles. Between them, almost at the very ground, in the autumn, a flower bud is laid. The flowers are fleshy, small (about 1 cm), bisexual, solitary, axillary, on short drooping pedicels, regular (actinomorphic), red-brown, usually formed at the ends of young spring shoots. Perianth 3-membered, has a peculiar goblet shape. Stamens numerous, pistils fused with threads with a column in a common column. Pestle with a lower, flattened ovary on top. The fruit is a box. Seeds are about 3 mm long, with a fleshy white appendage. It blooms quite early (April - May). Flowers are pollinated by ants, seeds are also spread by them (an example of myrrh-mechoria).


It occurs mainly in the middle lane and in the south of European Russia, as well as in the adjacent regions of Western Siberia. It is isolated in Altai. In the northern regions it becomes rare.

European ungulates are a common species of broad-leaved and mixed (spruce-broad-leaved) forests. Often found in thickets of hazel. Often forms a continuous ground cover. With advancement to the North, it grows in other types of forests (spruce forests, aspen forests, birch forests). It prefers shady places rich in humus soils (especially loamy and clayey).

Chemical composition

The chemical composition of European ungulates is not well understood, although very different biologically active substances are contained in different parts of the plant. The roots, rhizomes and grass of the hoofed grass contain up to 1% of essential oil, which contains up to 30-35% of azarone and diazoron, 2-3% of azaryl aldehyde, 1-2% of 1-pinene, 12-15% of eugenol, and also methyleugenol , bornyl acetate, resins, tannins, flavonoids (quercetin, kempferol), mucus, starch and organic acids. In addition, glycosides were found in the rhizomes and leaves of European ungulates, and the azalin alkaloid was found in the leaves and roots.

Pharmacological properties

The ungulate has emetic, sedative, choleretic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, anthelmintic, laxative, and also milk-producing and adrenoline-like actions.

The ability of drugs from the leaves of European ungulate to improve heart function, strengthen heart contractions, narrow peripheral blood vessels, increase blood pressure and vein tone, stimulate the activity of sweat glands, secretory activity of the digestive tract, promote secretion of gastric juice, and promote intestinal motility has been experimentally established. In addition, induce vomiting and have a stimulating effect on the heart.

Application in traditional medicine

European ungulates - a well-known medicinal plant, which in the past was more used than now. Different parts of the plant were widely used in folk medicine. For example, hoofed eggs were used to improve digestion, with gastritis, enteritis, liver diseases, jaundice, dropsy, peptic ulcer, bronchitis, worms, and also with scanty menstruation. The leaves of European ungulates in folk medicine are used for malaria. A decoction of rhizomes of European ungulates is popularly used as an emetic in the treatment of alcoholism and instilling an aversion to alcohol. European ungulate is used (mainly externally) for various skin diseases, for example, rubbed with the juice of a plant affected areas of pink eels. Freshly crushed leaves of European ungulate are applied to boils. When scabies, the affected areas of the skin are rubbed with fresh plant juice or tincture of leaves on vinegar. For these skin diseases, powder from a dried plant (like powder) is also used.

History reference

European medicinal hoof has been known as a medicinal plant since the time of Avicenna. In his opinion, the roots are the most useful part of the plant. Preparations based on it, in particular infusion, help with dropsy, sciatic nerve inflammation and chronic pain, and also increase the amount of male seed.

The generic name "Asarum" comes from its own property and is translated from ancient Greek as "disgusting."

Medicinal properties and preparations based on the Clefthoof

From the experience of traditional medicine it is reliably known that hoof:

  • diuretic,
  • regulates the functional activity of the stomach,
  • regulates menstruation,
  • anti-inflammatory agent
  • heart remedy
  • expectorant,
  • anti-alcohol agent
  • emetic.

In scientific medicine, hoofed eggs were previously used as an emetic; currently, they are not used.

In folk medicine, European ungulates are well-deserved recognition. Powder from the root of the ungulate women consume for regulating menstruation: powder (on the tip of a penknife) is poured into a glass of milk. Take 1 time a day on an empty stomach.

Hoofed root broth in water or goat milk is used for:

  • lean menses
  • to improve digestion (with dyspepsia),
  • with gastritis and enteritis,
  • liver diseases and jaundice (hepatitis).

For the treatment of hepatitis (jaundice), it is better to mix the cloven hoof with cumin sand equally or sand immortelle (1 tbsp.spoon of the mixture per 200 ml of boiling water, 1 tbsp.spoon 3 times a day).

Decoction of European Clefthoof is recommended with heart disease as a sedative, it is especially useful for convulsions in children (decoction: 1/2 teaspoon per glass of milk, use 1/2 teaspoon 1 time per day).

Hoofed oil is also effective for worms and fever (in powder, as well as for fever.

To cause an alcoholic aversion to liquor just one tablespoon of broth of hoofed mixed with a glass of vodka is enough.

With bronchitis they prepare an expectorant preparation, mix hoofs with boudoir leaves and grass of the common cocklebur.

Externally, a broth of hoofed root is used:

  • like a lotion for a headache
  • in abscesses - crushed leaves fresh,
  • with eye diseases, a lotion is made from a decoction of leaves,
  • when scabies rub the affected area with tincture of ungulates on vinegar.

Vomit can be caused by hoof powder taken orally in a dose no more than 0.5 grams.

Methods of using preparations from European ungulates:

  • Clefthoof Broth: 2.0-200.0, or half a teaspoon per 200 ml of boiling water, one tablespoon once a day.
  • Decoction of leaves: or 1/2 teaspoon per glass.
  • Mixture: mix the hoof root, bud leaves and the fruit of the fruit grass, brew 3 tablespoons of the mixture in 3 cups boiling water, drink half a glass once a day.
  • Most effective European Clefthoof tincture (20.0, 20 drops each).

For reference

The composition of the European hoof includes: essential oil, various resins, alkaloids, starch, mucus, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and much more.

European ungulates possess extensive pharmacological properties. It causes vomiting, expectorant, bronchodilating anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, laxative effects, and also has antipyretic, wound healing, diuretic, anthelmintic, sedative, anti-sclerotic properties. European hoofed grass is also used to treat various wounds, formed purulent ulcers, scabies.

European hoofs are used for the manufacture of ointments for external use. They do it this way: they grind the roots of the hoof into powder and mix with oil, petroleum jelly, lard or fat. In order for the ointment to be most effective, badger fat must be used, and sea buckthorn or cedar oil must be used.

From hoofs you can prepare not only ointments and oils, but also tinctures, decoctions, infusions, powders. Powders, by the way, are made from the root of the clefthoof. All this, except for oils and ointments, can be consumed inside.

To prepare the daily rate of therapeutic tincture, you need to take two teaspoons of European ungulate, pour into a thermos and pour a glass of boiling water.

Hoof in the design of the garden

Most gardeners are interested in the decorative qualities of the hoof. How can you use it in the garden, and where better to place such an unusual plant. Since hoofed grass grows in nature under the forest canopy, it will become an indispensable participant in the shadow corner in the garden. It can be planted in small jackets or create a continuous low cover.

Clefthoof near the host and loosestrife

The hoof is well combined with other inhabitants of the shady areas - ferns, hosts, and is suitable for the garden of coniferous plants. It will be decorative all season: in early spring it will come out from under the snow green and with its shiny leaves will decorate the site when there are still so few beautiful plants in the garden. And it will also go into the winter under the snow - green and elegant.

You can choose neighbors for ungulates in our market, combining large online stores. A selection of plants for shady flower beds.